# Calculation operators

Operators specify the type of calculation that you want to perform on the elements of a formula. Lists support three different types of calculation operators: arithmetic, comparison, and text.

## Types of operators

### Arithmetic operators

To perform basic mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, or multiplication; combine numbers; and produce numeric results, use the following arithmetic operators.

Arithmetic operator |
Meaning (Example) |
---|---|

+ (plus sign) | Addition (3+3) |

– (minus sign) | Subtraction (3–1) Negation (–1) |

* (asterisk) | Multiplication (3*3) |

/ (forward slash) | Division (3/3) |

% (percent sign) | Percent (20%) |

^ (caret) | Exponentiation (3^2) |

### Comparison operators

You can compare two values with the following operators. When two values are compared by using these operators, the result is a logical value of Yes or No.

Comparison operator |
Meaning (Example) |
---|---|

= (equal sign) | Equal to (A=B) |

> (greater than sign) | Greater than (A>B) |

< (less than sign) | Less than (A<B) |

>= (greater than or equal to sign) | Greater than or equal to (A>=B) |

<= (less than or equal to sign) | Less than or equal to (A<=B) |

<> (not equal to sign) | Not equal to (A<>B) |

### Text concatenation operator

Use the ampersand (&) to join, or concatenate, one or more text strings to produce a single piece of text.

Text operator |
Meaning (Example) |
---|---|

& (ampersand) | Connects, or concatenates, two values to produce one continuous text value ("North"&"wind") |

## The order in which a list performs operations in a formula

Formulas calculate values in a specific order. A list formula might begin with an equal sign (=). Following the equal sign are the elements to be calculated (the operands), which are separated by calculation operators. Lists calculate the formula from left to right, according to a specific order for each operator in the formula.

### Operator precedence

If you combine several operators in a single formula, lists perform the operations in the order shown in the following table. If a formula contains operators with the same precedence — for example, if a formula contains both a multiplication and division operator — lists evaluate the operators from left to right.

Operator |
Description |
---|---|

– | Negation (as in –1) |

% | Percent |

^ | Exponentiation |

* and / | Multiplication and division |

+ and – | Addition and subtraction |

& | Connects two strings of text (concatenation) |

= < > <= >= <> | Comparison |

### Use of parentheses

To change the order of evaluation, enclose in parentheses the part of the formula to be calculated first. For example, the following formula produces 11 because a list calculates multiplication before addition. The formula multiplies 2 by 3 and then adds 5 to the result.

=5+2*3

In contrast, if you use parentheses to change the syntax, the list adds 5 and 2 together and then multiplies the result by 3 to produce 21.

=(5+2)*3

In the example below, the parentheses around the first part of the formula force the list to calculate [Cost]+25 first and then divide the result by the sum of the values in columns EC1 and EC2.

=([Cost]+25)/SUM([EC1]+[EC2])