TDIST function

Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution where a numeric value (x) is a calculated value of t for which the Percentage Points are to be computed. The t-distribution is used in the hypothesis testing of small sample data sets. Use this function in place of a table of critical values for the t-distribution.

 Important   This function has been replaced with one or more new functions that may provide improved accuracy and whose names better reflect their usage. Although this function is still available for backward compatibility, you should consider using the new functions from now on, because this function may not be available in future versions of Excel.

For more information about the new functions, see T.DIST.2T function and T.DIST.RT function.

Syntax

TDIST(x,deg_freedom,tails)

The TDIST function syntax has the following arguments (argument: A value that provides information to an action, an event, a method, a property, a function, or a procedure.):

  • X     Required. The numeric value at which to evaluate the distribution.
  • Deg_freedom     Required. An integer indicating the number of degrees of freedom.
  • Tails     Required. Specifies the number of distribution tails to return. If tails = 1, TDIST returns the one-tailed distribution. If tails = 2, TDIST returns the two-tailed distribution.

Remarks

  • If any argument is nonnumeric, TDIST returns the #VALUE! error value.
  • If deg_freedom < 1, TDIST returns the #NUM! error value.
  • The deg_freedom and tails arguments are truncated to integers.
  • If tails is any value other than 1 or 2, TDIST returns the #NUM! error value.
  • If x < 0, then TDIST returns the #NUM! error value.
  • If tails = 1, TDIST is calculated as TDIST = P( X>x ), where X is a random variable that follows the t-distribution. If tails = 2, TDIST is calculated as TDIST = P(|X| > x) = P(X > x or X < -x).
  • Since x < 0 is not allowed, to use TDIST when x < 0, note that TDIST(-x,df,1) = 1 – TDIST(x,df,1) = P(X > -x) and TDIST(-x,df,2) = TDIST(x,df,2) = P(|X| > x).

Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

ShowHow do I copy an example?

  1. Select the example in this article. If you are copying the example in Excel Online, copy and paste one cell at a time.
    Important: Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

Selecting an example from Help

  1. Press CTRL+C.
  2. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
  3. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V. If you are working in Excel Online, repeat copying and pasting for each cell in the example.
    Important: For the example to work properly, you must paste it into cell A1 of the worksheet.
  4. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.

After you copy the example to a blank worksheet, you can adapt it to suit your needs.

 
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A B
Data Description
1.959999998 Value at which to evaluate the distribution
60 Degrees of freedom
Formula Description (Result)
=TDIST(A2,A3,2) Two-tailed distribution (0.054644927, or 5.46 percent)
=TDIST(A2,A3,1) One-tailed distribution (0.027322464 or 2.73 percent)

 Note   To view the result as a percentage, select the cell, and then on the Home tab, in the Number group, click the arrow next to Number Format, and click Percentage.

 
 
Applies to:
Excel 2010, Excel Web App, SharePoint Online for enterprises, SharePoint Online for professionals and small businesses