WORKDAY function

Returns a number that represents a date that is the indicated number of working days before or after a date (the starting date). Working days exclude weekends and any dates identified as holidays. Use WORKDAY to exclude weekends or holidays when you calculate invoice due dates, expected delivery times, or the number of days of work performed.



 Important   Dates should be entered by using the DATE function, or as results of other formulas or functions. For example, use DATE(2008,5,23) for the 23rd day of May, 2008. Problems can occur if dates are entered as text .

Start_date     is a date that represents the start date.

Days     is the number of nonweekend and nonholiday days before or after start_date. A positive value for days yields a future date; a negative value yields a past date.

Holidays     is an optional list of one or more dates to exclude from the working calendar, such as state and federal holidays and floating holidays. The list can be either a range of cells that contain the dates or an array constant (array: Used to build single formulas that produce multiple results or that operate on a group of arguments that are arranged in rows and columns. An array range shares a common formula; an array constant is a group of constants used as an argument.) of the serial numbers that represent the dates.


  • Microsoft Excel stores dates as sequential serial numbers so they can be used in calculations. By default, January 1, 1900 is serial number 1, and January 1, 2008 is serial number 39448 because it is 39,448 days after January 1, 1900. Microsoft Excel for the Macintosh uses a different date system as its default.
  • If any argument is not a valid date, WORKDAY returns the #VALUE! error value.
  • If start_date plus days yields an invalid date, WORKDAY returns the #NUM! error value.
  • If days is not an integer, it is truncated.


The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

ShowHow to copy an example

  • Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
  • Select the example in the Help topic.

 Note   Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

Selecting an example from Help
  • Press CTRL+C.
  • In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.
  • To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.
Date Description
10/01/2008 Start date
151 Days to completion
11/26/2008 Holiday
12/4/2008 Holiday
1/21/2009 Holiday
Formula Description (Result)
=WORKDAY(A2,A3) Date 151 workdays from the start date (4/30/2009)
=WORKDAY(A2,A3,A4:A6) Date 151 workdays from the start date, excluding holidays (5/5/2009)


  • To view the number as a date, select the cell, and then on the Sheet tab, in the Number group, click the arrow next to Number Format, and click Short Date or Long Date.
  • To convert the range of cells used for holidays in the last example into a array constant, select A4:A6 and then press F9.
Applies to:
Excel 2007