SUBTOTAL function

Returns a subtotal in a list or database. It is generally easier to create a list with subtotals by using the Subtotal command in the Outline group on the Data tab. Once the subtotal list is created, you can modify it by editing the SUBTOTAL function.


SUBTOTAL(function_num, ref1, ref2, ...)

Function_num     is the number 1 to 11 (includes hidden values) or 101 to 111 (ignores hidden values) that specifies which function to use in calculating subtotals within a list.

(includes hidden values)
(ignores hidden values)
2 102 COUNT
3 103 COUNTA
4 104 MAX
5 105 MIN
7 107 STDEV
8 108 STDEVP
9 109 SUM
10 110 VAR
11 111 VARP

Ref1, ref2     are 1 to 254 ranges or references for which you want the subtotal.


  • If there are other subtotals within ref1, ref2,… (or nested subtotals), these nested subtotals are ignored to avoid double counting.
  • For the function_num constants from 1 to 11, the SUBTOTAL function includes the values of rows hidden by the Hide Rows command under the Hide & Unhide submenu of the Format command in the Cells group on the Home tab. Use these constants when you want to subtotal hidden and nonhidden numbers in a list. For the function_Num constants from 101 to 111, the SUBTOTAL function ignores values of rows hidden by the Hide Rows command. Use these constants when you want to subtotal only nonhidden numbers in a list.
  • The SUBTOTAL function ignores any rows that are not included in the result of a filter, no matter which function_num value you use.
  • The SUBTOTAL function is designed for columns of data, or vertical ranges. It is not designed for rows of data, or horizontal ranges. For example, when you subtotal a horizontal range using a function_num of 101 or greater, such as SUBTOTAL(109,B2:G2), hiding a column does not affect the subtotal. But, hiding a row in a subtotal of a vertical range does affect the subtotal.
  • If any of the references are 3-D references, SUBTOTAL returns the #VALUE! error value.


The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

ShowHow to copy an example

  1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
  2. Select the example in the Help topic.

 Note   Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

Selecting an example from Help
  1. Press CTRL+C.
  2. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.
  3. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.
Formula Description (Result)
=SUBTOTAL(9,A2:A5) Subtotal of the column above using the SUM function (303)
=SUBTOTAL(1,A2:A5) Subtotal of the column above using the AVERAGE function (75.75)
Applies to:
Excel 2007