This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the SUBTOTAL function (function: A prewritten formula that takes a value or values, performs an operation, and returns a value or values. Use functions to simplify and shorten formulas on a worksheet, especially those that perform lengthy or complex calculations.) in Microsoft Excel.
Returns a subtotal in a list or database. It is generally easier to create a list with subtotals by using the Subtotal command in the Outline group on the Data tab in the Excel desktop application. Once the subtotal list is created, you can modify it by editing the SUBTOTAL function.
The SUBTOTAL function syntax has the following arguments (argument: A value that provides information to an action, an event, a method, a property, a function, or a procedure.):
- Function_num Required. The number 1 to 11 (includes hidden values) or 101 to 111 (ignores hidden values) that specifies which function to use in calculating subtotals within a list.
(includes hidden values)
(ignores hidden values)
- Ref1 Required. The first named range or reference for which you want the subtotal.
- Ref2,... Optional. Named ranges or references 2 to 254 for which you want the subtotal.
- If there are other subtotals within ref1, ref2,… (or nested subtotals), these nested subtotals are ignored to avoid double counting.
- For the function_num constants from 1 to 11, the SUBTOTAL function includes the values of rows hidden by the Hide Rows command under the Hide & Unhide submenu of the Format command in the Cells group on the Home tab in the Excel desktop application. Use these constants when you want to subtotal hidden and nonhidden numbers in a list. For the function_Num constants from 101 to 111, the SUBTOTAL function ignores values of rows hidden by the Hide Rows command. Use these constants when you want to subtotal only nonhidden numbers in a list.
- The SUBTOTAL function ignores any rows that are not included in the result of a filter, no matter which function_num value you use.
- The SUBTOTAL function is designed for columns of data, or vertical ranges. It is not designed for rows of data, or horizontal ranges. For example, when you subtotal a horizontal range using a function_num of 101 or greater, such as SUBTOTAL(109,B2:G2), hiding a column does not affect the subtotal. But, hiding a row in a subtotal of a vertical range does affect the subtotal.
- If any of the references are 3-D references, SUBTOTAL returns the #VALUE! error value.
The workbook below shows examples of this function. Inspect them, change existing formulas, or enter your own formulas to learn how the function works.
To work more in-depth with the example data in Excel, download the embedded workbook to your computer, and then open it in Excel.