Round a number

Let's say you want to round a number to the nearest whole number because decimal values are not significant to you. Or, you want to round a number to multiples of 10 to simplify an approximation of amounts. There are several ways to round a number.

What do you want to do?


Change the number of decimal places displayed without changing the number

On a worksheet

  1. Select the cells that you want to format.
  2. To display more or fewer digits after the decimal point, on the Home tab, in the Number group, click Increase Decimal Button image or Decrease Decimal Button image.

In a built-in number format

  1. On the Home tab, in the Number group, click the arrow next to the list of number formats, and then click More Number Formats.

The Number Format list in the Number group on the Home tab

  1. In the Category list, depending on the data type of your numbers, click Currency, Accounting, Percentage, or Scientific.
  2. In the Decimal places box, enter the number of decimal places that you want to display.

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Round a number up

Use the ROUNDUP function. In some cases, you may want to use the EVEN and the ODD functions to round up to the nearest even or odd number.

Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

ShowHow to copy an example

  1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
  2. Select the example in the Help topic.

 Note   Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

Selecting an example from Help
  1. Press CTRL+C.
  2. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.
  3. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.
 
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A
Data
20.3
-5.9
12.5493
Formula Description (Result)
=ROUNDUP(A2,0) Rounds 20.3 up to the nearest whole number (21)
=ROUNDUP(A3,0) Rounds -5.9 up to the nearest whole number (-6)
=ROUNDUP(A4,2) Rounds 12.5493 up to two decimal places (12.55)
=EVEN(3.25) Rounds 3.25 up to the nearest even whole number, (4)
=ODD (A2) Rounds 20.3 up to the nearest odd whole number (21)

=ROUNDUP(argument1, argument2)    

The ROUNDUP function requires two arguments:

  • The first argument is the number to be rounded. This can be a number that you specify directly in the formula, or a cell reference.
  • The second argument is the number of decimal places to which you want to round the result.

When you round up a number, the format of the cell may override what you expect to be displayed. For example, if you specify 4 decimal places as the second argument but the cell is formatted to display 2 numbers after the decimal point, the formatting of the cell takes precedence.

You can use the EVEN and the ODD functions to round up a number to the nearest even or odd whole number. These functions have limited uses, and it's important to remember that they always round up and only to a whole number.

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Round a number down

Use the ROUNDDOWN function.

Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

ShowHow to copy an example

  1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
  2. Select the example in the Help topic.

 Note   Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

Selecting an example from Help
  1. Press CTRL+C.
  2. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.
  3. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.
 
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A
Data
20.3
-5.9
12.5493
Formula Description (Result)
=ROUNDDOWN(A2,0) Rounds 20.3 down to the nearest whole number ( 20)
=ROUNDDOWN(A3,0) Rounds -5.9 down (-5)
=ROUNDDOWN(A4,2) Rounds the number down to the nearest hundredth, two decimal places ( 12.54)

=ROUNDDOWN(argument1, argument2)    

The ROUNDDOWN function requires two arguments:

  • The first argument is the number to be rounded. This can be a number that you specify directly in the formula, or a cell reference.
  • The second argument is the number of decimal places to which you want to round the result.

When you round down a number, the format of the cell may override what you expect to be displayed. For example, if you specify 4 decimal places as the second argument but the cell is formatted to display 2 numbers after the decimal point, the formatting of the cell takes precedence.

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Round a number to the nearest number

Use the ROUND function.

Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

ShowHow to copy an example

  1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
  2. Select the example in the Help topic.

 Note   Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

Selecting an example from Help
  1. Press CTRL+C.
  2. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.
  3. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.
 
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A
Data
20.3
5.9
-5.9
Formula Description (Result)
=ROUND(A2,0) Rounds 20.3 down, because the fractional part is less than .5 (20)
=ROUND(A3,0) Rounds 5.9 up, because the fractional part is greater than .5 (6)
=ROUND(A4,0) Rounds -5.9 down, because the fractional part is less than -.5 (-6)

=ROUND(argument1, argument2)    

The ROUND function requires two arguments:

  • The first argument is the number to be rounded. This can be a number that you specify directly in the formula, or a cell reference.
  • The second argument is the number of decimal places to which you want to round the result.

When you round a number, the format of the cell may override what you expect to be displayed. For example, if you specify 4 decimal places as the second argument but the cell is formatted to display 2 numbers after the decimal point, the formatting of the cell takes precedence.

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Round a number to a near fraction

Use the ROUND function.

Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

ShowHow to copy an example

  1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
  2. Select the example in the Help topic.

 Note   Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

Selecting an example from Help
  1. Press CTRL+C.
  2. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.
  3. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.
 
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A
Data
1.25
30.452
Formula Description (Result)
=ROUND(A2,1) Rounds 1.25 to the nearest tenth (one decimal place). Because the portion to be rounded is 0.05 or greater, the number is rounded up (result: 1.3)
=ROUND(A3,2) Rounds 30.452 to the nearest hundredth (two decimal places). Because the portion to be rounded, 0.002, is less than 0.005, the number is rounded down (result: 30.45)

=ROUND(argument1, argument2)    

The ROUND function requires two arguments:

  • The first argument is the number to be rounded. This can be a number that you specify directly in the formula, or a cell reference.
  • The second argument is the number of decimal places to which you want to round the result.

When you round a number, the format of the cell may override what you expect to be displayed. For example, if you specify 4 decimal places as the second argument but the cell is formatted to display 2 numbers after the decimal point, the formatting of the cell takes precedence.

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Round a number to a significant digit

Significant digits are digits that contribute to the accuracy of a number.

The examples in this section use the ROUND, ROUNDUP, and ROUNDDOWN functions. They cover rounding methods for positive, negative, whole, and fractional numbers, but the examples shown represent only a very small list of possible scenarios.

The following list contains some general rules to keep in mind when you round numbers to significant digits. You can experiment with the rounding functions and substitute your own numbers and parameters to return the number of significant digits that you want.

  • When rounding a negative number, that number is first converted to its absolute value (its value without the negative sign). The rounding operation then occurs, and then the negative sign is reapplied. Although this may seem to defy logic, it is the way rounding works. For example, using the ROUNDDOWN function to round -889 to two significant digits results in -880. First, -889 is converted to its absolute value of 889. Next, it is rounded down to two significant digits results (880). Finally, the negative sign is reapplied, for a result of -880.
  • Using the ROUNDDOWN function on a positive number always rounds a number down, and ROUNDUP always rounds a number up.
  • The ROUND function rounds a number containing a fraction as follows: If the fractional part is 0.5 or greater, the number is rounded up. If the fractional part is less than 0.5, the number is rounded down.
  • The ROUND function rounds a whole number up or down by following a similar rule to that for fractional numbers; substituting multiples of 5 for 0.5.
  • As a general rule, when you round a number that has no fractional part (a whole number), you subtract the length from the number of significant digits to which you want to round. For example, to round 2345678 down to 3 significant digits, you use the ROUNDDOWN function with the parameter -4, as follows: = ROUNDDOWN(2345678,-4). This rounds the number down to 2340000, with the "234" portion as the significant digits.

Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

ShowHow to copy an example

  1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
  2. Select the example in the Help topic.

 Note   Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

Selecting an example from Help
  1. Press CTRL+C.
  2. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.
  3. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.
 
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A
Data
5492820
-362845
22270
-889
-0.25

Formula
Description (Result)

=ROUND(A2,-4)
Rounds 5492820 to 3 significant digits (5490000). Because this is a whole number and is 7 digits long, and you want to round to 3 significant digits, you subtract 7 from 3 to find the parameter to enter (-4).
=ROUND(A3,-2) Rounds -362845 to 4 significant digits (-362800). As with the preceding example, you subtract the length (6 digits) from the desired number of significant digits (4) to find the parameter to enter (-2).
=ROUNDDOWN(A4,-2) Rounds 22270 down to 3 significant digits (22200). Note that the ROUNDDOWN function rounds the "270" portion of the number down to "200."
=ROUNDUP(A4,-4) Rounds 22270 up to 1 significant digit (30000). In this example, the one significant digit (the first "2") is rounded up to "3."
=ROUNDUP(A5,-1) Rounds -889 up to 2 significant digits (-890). Rounding a negative number requires that you first convert it to its absolute value, so rounding up a negative value actually rounds it downward.
=ROUNDDOWN(A5,-1) Rounds -889 down to 2 significant digits (-880). Similar to the preceding example, rounding a negative number down actually rounds it upward.
=ROUND(A6,1) Rounds -0.25 to 1 significant digit (-0.3).
=ROUNDDOWN(A6,1) Rounds -0.25 down to 1 significant digit (-0.2).

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Round a number to a specified multiple

There may be times when you want to round to a multiple of a number that you specify. For example, suppose your company ships a product in crates of 18 items. You can use the MROUND function to find out how many crates you will need to ship 204 items. In this case, the answer is 12, because 204 divided by 18 is 11.333, and you will need to round up. The 12th crate will contain only 6 items.

There may also be times where you need to round a negative number to a negative multiple or a number that contains decimal places to a multiple that contains decimal places. You can also use the MROUND function in these cases.

Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

ShowHow to copy an example

  1. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
  2. Select the example in the Help topic.

 Note   Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

Selecting an example from Help
  1. Press CTRL+C.
  2. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V.
  3. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.
 
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A B
Formula Description (Result)
=MROUND(16, 5) Rounds 16 to a nearest multiple of 5 (15)
=MROUND(-16, -5) Rounds -16 to a nearest multiple of -5 (-15)
=MROUND(2.6, 0.08) Rounds 2.6 to a nearest multiple of 0.08 (2.64)
=MROUND(5, -2) Returns an error, because 5 and -2 have different signs (#NUM!)

=MROUND(argument1, argument2)    

The MROUND function requires two arguments:

  • The first argument is the number to be rounded. This can be a number that you specify directly in the formula, or a cell reference.
  • The second argument is the multiple to which you want to round the result.

The MROUND function works by dividing the first argument (the number to be rounded) by the second argument (the multiple), discarding the remainder, and multiplying the result by the multiple. For example, using 16 and 5 as the first and second arguments, the result is 3 (16/5 = 3.2; the remainder is 0.2). The MROUND function discards the remainder and multiples the result (3) by the multiple (5) to return a final value of 15.

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Applies to:
Excel 2010, Excel 2007