# ROMAN function

This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the ROMAN function (function: A prewritten formula that takes a value or values, performs an operation, and returns a value or values. Use functions to simplify and shorten formulas on a worksheet, especially those that perform lengthy or complex calculations.) in Microsoft Excel.

## Description

Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text.

## Syntax

`ROMAN(number, [form])`

The ROMAN function syntax has the following arguments (argument: A value that provides information to an action, an event, a method, a property, a function, or a procedure.):

• Number    Required. The Arabic numeral you want converted.
• Form    Optional. A number specifying the type of roman numeral you want. The roman numeral style ranges from Classic to Simplified, becoming more concise as the value of form increases. See the example following `ROMAN(499,0)` below.
Form Type
0 or omitted Classic.
1 More concise. See example below.
2 More concise. See example below.
3 More concise. See example below.
4 Simplified.
TRUE Classic.
FALSE Simplified.

## Remarks

• If number is negative, the #VALUE! error value is returned.
• If number is greater than 3999, the #VALUE! error value is returned.

## Example

The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

1. Select the example in this article. If you are copying the example in Excel Online, copy and paste one cell at a time.
Important: Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

1. Press CTRL+C.
2. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
3. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V. If you are working in Excel Online, repeat copying and pasting for each cell in the example.
Important: For the example to work properly, you must paste it into cell A1 of the worksheet.
4. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.

After you copy the example to a blank worksheet, you can adapt it to suit your needs.

A B
Formula Description (Result)
=ROMAN(499,0) Classic roman numeral style for 499 (CDXCIX)
=ROMAN(499,1) More concise version for 499 (LDVLIV)
=ROMAN(499,2) More concise version for 499 (XDIX)
=ROMAN(499,3) More concise version for 499 (VDIV)
=ROMAN(499,4) More concise version for 499 (ID)
=ROMAN(2013,0) Classic roman numeral style for 2013 (MMXIII)

Applies to:
Excel 2010, Excel Web App, SharePoint Online for enterprises, SharePoint Online for professionals and small businesses