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# Get to know Excel 2007: Enter formulas

###### Quick reference card

Relative references change as they are copied.
Absolute references stay the same as they are copied.

Now that you've learned more about using cell references, it's time to talk about different types of references:

Relative     Every relative cell reference in a formula automatically changes when the formula is copied down a column or across a row. This is why in the first lesson you could copy the January formula to add up February expenses. As the example illustrated here shows, when the formula =C4*\$D\$9 is copied from row to row, the relative cell references change from C4 to C5 to C6.

Absolute     An absolute cell reference is fixed. Absolute references don't change if you copy a formula from one cell to another. Absolute references have dollar signs (\$) like this: \$D\$9. As the art shows, when the formula =C4*\$D\$9 is copied from row to row, the absolute cell reference remains as \$D\$9.

Mixed     A mixed cell reference has either an absolute column and a relative row, or an absolute row and a relative column. For example, \$A1 is an absolute reference to column A and a relative reference to row 1. As a mixed reference is copied from one cell to another, the absolute reference stays the same but the relative reference changes.

Next you'll see why you'd use an absolute reference.

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