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# Excel functions (by category)

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In Excel 2010, several functions have been implemented with new algorithms for improved accuracy.Read a blog post or try Office 2010! |

The following sections list all of the worksheet functions by category.

## In this topic

## Database functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

DAVERAGE | Returns the average of selected database entries |

DCOUNT | Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database |

DCOUNTA | Counts nonblank cells in a database |

DGET | Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria |

DMAX | Returns the maximum value from selected database entries |

DMIN | Returns the minimum value from selected database entries |

DPRODUCT | Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database |

DSTDEV | Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries |

DSTDEVP | Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries |

DSUM | Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria |

DVAR | Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries |

DVARP | Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries |

## Date and time functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

DATE | Returns the serial number of a particular date |

DATEVALUE | Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number |

DAY | Converts a serial number to a day of the month |

DAYS360 | Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year |

EDATE | Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date |

EOMONTH | Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months |

HOUR | Converts a serial number to an hour |

MINUTE | Converts a serial number to a minute |

MONTH | Converts a serial number to a month |

NETWORKDAYS | Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates |

NOW | Returns the serial number of the current date and time |

SECOND | Converts a serial number to a second |

TIME | Returns the serial number of a particular time |

TIMEVALUE | Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number |

TODAY | Returns the serial number of today's date |

WEEKDAY | Converts a serial number to a day of the week |

WEEKNUM | Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year |

WORKDAY | Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays |

YEAR | Converts a serial number to a year |

YEARFRAC | Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date |

## Engineering functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

BESSELI | Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) |

BESSELJ | Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) |

BESSELK | Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) |

BESSELY | Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) |

BIN2DEC | Converts a binary number to decimal |

BIN2HEX | Converts a binary number to hexadecimal |

BIN2OCT | Converts a binary number to octal |

COMPLEX | Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number |

CONVERT | Converts a number from one measurement system to another |

DEC2BIN | Converts a decimal number to binary |

DEC2HEX | Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal |

DEC2OCT | Converts a decimal number to octal |

DELTA | Tests whether two values are equal |

ERF | Returns the error function |

ERFC | Returns the complementary error function |

GESTEP | Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value |

HEX2BIN | Converts a hexadecimal number to binary |

HEX2DEC | Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal |

HEX2OCT | Converts a hexadecimal number to octal |

IMABS | Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number |

IMAGINARY | Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number |

IMARGUMENT | Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians |

IMCONJUGATE | Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number |

IMCOS | Returns the cosine of a complex number |

IMDIV | Returns the quotient of two complex numbers |

IMEXP | Returns the exponential of a complex number |

IMLN | Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number |

IMLOG10 | Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number |

IMLOG2 | Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number |

IMPOWER | Returns a complex number raised to an integer power |

IMPRODUCT | Returns the product of from 2 to 29 complex numbers |

IMREAL | Returns the real coefficient of a complex number |

IMSIN | Returns the sine of a complex number |

IMSQRT | Returns the square root of a complex number |

IMSUB | Returns the difference between two complex numbers |

IMSUM | Returns the sum of complex numbers |

OCT2BIN | Converts an octal number to binary |

OCT2DEC | Converts an octal number to decimal |

OCT2HEX | Converts an octal number to hexadecimal |

## Financial functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

ACCRINT | Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest |

ACCRINTM | Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity |

AMORDEGRC | Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient |

AMORLINC | Returns the depreciation for each accounting period |

COUPDAYBS | Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date |

COUPDAYS | Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date |

COUPDAYSNC | Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date |

COUPNCD | Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date |

COUPNUM | Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date |

COUPPCD | Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date |

CUMIPMT | Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods |

CUMPRINC | Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods |

DB | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method |

DDB | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify |

DISC | Returns the discount rate for a security |

DOLLARDE | Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number |

DOLLARFR | Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction |

DURATION | Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments |

EFFECT | Returns the effective annual interest rate |

FV | Returns the future value of an investment |

FVSCHEDULE | Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates |

INTRATE | Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security |

IPMT | Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period |

IRR | Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows |

ISPMT | Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment |

MDURATION | Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100 |

MIRR | Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates |

NOMINAL | Returns the annual nominal interest rate |

NPER | Returns the number of periods for an investment |

NPV | Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate |

ODDFPRICE | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period |

ODDFYIELD | Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period |

ODDLPRICE | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period |

ODDLYIELD | Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period |

PMT | Returns the periodic payment for an annuity |

PPMT | Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period |

PRICE | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest |

PRICEDISC | Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security |

PRICEMAT | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity |

PV | Returns the present value of an investment |

RATE | Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity |

RECEIVED | Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security |

SLN | Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period |

SYD | Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period |

TBILLEQ | Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill |

TBILLPRICE | Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill |

TBILLYIELD | Returns the yield for a Treasury bill |

VDB | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method |

XIRR | Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic |

XNPV | Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic |

YIELD | Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest |

YIELDDISC | Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill |

YIELDMAT | Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity |

## Information functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

CELL | Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell |

ERROR.TYPE | Returns a number corresponding to an error type |

INFO | Returns information about the current operating environment |

ISBLANK | Returns TRUE if the value is blank |

ISERR | Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A |

ISERROR | Returns TRUE if the value is any error value |

ISEVEN | Returns TRUE if the number is even |

ISLOGICAL | Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value |

ISNA | Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value |

ISNONTEXT | Returns TRUE if the value is not text |

ISNUMBER | Returns TRUE if the value is a number |

ISODD | Returns TRUE if the number is odd |

ISREF | Returns TRUE if the value is a reference |

ISTEXT | Returns TRUE if the value is text |

N | Returns a value converted to a number |

NA | Returns the error value #N/A |

TYPE | Returns a number indicating the data type of a value |

## Logical functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

AND | Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE |

FALSE | Returns the logical value FALSE |

IF | Specifies a logical test to perform |

NOT | Reverses the logic of its argument |

OR | Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE |

TRUE | Returns the logical value TRUE |

## Lookup and reference functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

ADDRESS | Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet |

AREAS | Returns the number of areas in a reference |

CHOOSE | Chooses a value from a list of values |

COLUMN | Returns the column number of a reference |

COLUMNS | Returns the number of columns in a reference |

GETPIVOTDATA | Returns data stored in a PivotTable |

HLOOKUP | Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell |

HYPERLINK | Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet |

INDEX | Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array |

INDIRECT | Returns a reference indicated by a text value |

LOOKUP | Looks up values in a vector or array |

MATCH | Looks up values in a reference or array |

OFFSET | Returns a reference offset from a given reference |

ROW | Returns the row number of a reference |

ROWS | Returns the number of rows in a reference |

RTD | Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports COM automation (Automation: A way to work with an application's objects from another application or development tool. Formerly called OLE Automation, Automation is an industry standard and a feature of the Component Object Model (COM).) |

TRANSPOSE | Returns the transpose of an array |

VLOOKUP | Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell |

## Math and trigonometry functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

ABS | Returns the absolute value of a number |

ACOS | Returns the arccosine of a number |

ACOSH | Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number |

ASIN | Returns the arcsine of a number |

ASINH | Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number |

ATAN | Returns the arctangent of a number |

ATAN2 | Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates |

ATANH | Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number |

CEILING | Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance |

COMBIN | Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects |

COS | Returns the cosine of a number |

COSH | Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number |

DEGREES | Converts radians to degrees |

EVEN | Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer |

EXP | Returns e raised to the power of a given number |

FACT | Returns the factorial of a number |

FACTDOUBLE | Returns the double factorial of a number |

FLOOR | Rounds a number down, toward zero |

GCD | Returns the greatest common divisor |

INT | Rounds a number down to the nearest integer |

LCM | Returns the least common multiple |

LN | Returns the natural logarithm of a number |

LOG | Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base |

LOG10 | Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number |

MDETERM | Returns the matrix determinant of an array |

MINVERSE | Returns the matrix inverse of an array |

MMULT | Returns the matrix product of two arrays |

MOD | Returns the remainder from division |

MROUND | Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple |

MULTINOMIAL | Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers |

ODD | Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer |

PI | Returns the value of pi |

POWER | Returns the result of a number raised to a power |

PRODUCT | Multiplies its arguments |

QUOTIENT | Returns the integer portion of a division |

RADIANS | Converts degrees to radians |

RAND | Returns a random number between 0 and 1 |

RANDBETWEEN | Returns a random number between the numbers you specify |

ROMAN | Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text |

ROUND | Rounds a number to a specified number of digits |

ROUNDDOWN | Rounds a number down, toward zero |

ROUNDUP | Rounds a number up, away from zero |

SERIESSUM | Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula |

SIGN | Returns the sign of a number |

SIN | Returns the sine of the given angle |

SINH | Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number |

SQRT | Returns a positive square root |

SQRTPI | Returns the square root of (number * pi) |

SUBTOTAL | Returns a subtotal in a list or database |

SUM | Adds its arguments |

SUMIF | Adds the cells specified by a given criteria |

SUMPRODUCT | Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components |

SUMSQ | Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments |

SUMX2MY2 | Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays |

SUMX2PY2 | Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays |

SUMXMY2 | Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays |

TAN | Returns the tangent of a number |

TANH | Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number |

TRUNC | Truncates a number to an integer |

## Statistical functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

AVEDEV | Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean |

AVERAGE | Returns the average of its arguments |

AVERAGEA | Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values |

BETADIST | Returns the beta cumulative distribution function |

BETAINV | Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution |

BINOMDIST | Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability |

CHIDIST | Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution |

CHIINV | Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution |

CHITEST | Returns the test for independence |

CONFIDENCE | Returns the confidence interval for a population mean |

CORREL | Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets |

COUNT | Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments |

COUNTA | Counts how many values are in the list of arguments |

COUNTBLANK | Counts the number of blank cells within a range |

COUNTIF | Counts the number of nonblank cells within a range that meet the given criteria |

COVAR | Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations |

CRITBINOM | Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value |

DEVSQ | Returns the sum of squares of deviations |

EXPONDIST | Returns the exponential distribution |

FDIST | Returns the F probability distribution |

FINV | Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution |

FISHER | Returns the Fisher transformation |

FISHERINV | Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation |

FORECAST | Returns a value along a linear trend |

FREQUENCY | Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array |

FTEST | Returns the result of an F-test |

GAMMADIST | Returns the gamma distribution |

GAMMAINV | Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution |

GAMMALN | Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) |

GEOMEAN | Returns the geometric mean |

GROWTH | Returns values along an exponential trend |

HARMEAN | Returns the harmonic mean |

HYPGEOMDIST | Returns the hypergeometric distribution |

INTERCEPT | Returns the intercept of the linear regression line |

KURT | Returns the kurtosis of a data set |

LARGE | Returns the k-th largest value in a data set |

LINEST | Returns the parameters of a linear trend |

LOGEST | Returns the parameters of an exponential trend |

LOGINV | Returns the inverse of the lognormal distribution |

LOGNORMDIST | Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution |

MAX | Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments |

MAXA | Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values |

MEDIAN | Returns the median of the given numbers |

MIN | Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments |

MINA | Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values |

MODE | Returns the most common value in a data set |

NEGBINOMDIST | Returns the negative binomial distribution |

NORMDIST | Returns the normal cumulative distribution |

NORMINV | Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution |

NORMSDIST | Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution |

NORMSINV | Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution |

PEARSON | Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient |

PERCENTILE | Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range |

PERCENTRANK | Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set |

PERMUT | Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects |

POISSON | Returns the Poisson distribution |

PROB | Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits |

QUARTILE | Returns the quartile of a data set |

RANK | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers |

RSQ | Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient |

SKEW | Returns the skewness of a distribution |

SLOPE | Returns the slope of the linear regression line |

SMALL | Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set |

STANDARDIZE | Returns a normalized value |

STDEV | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample |

STDEVA | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values |

STDEVP | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population |

STDEVPA | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values |

STEYX | Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression |

TDIST | Returns the Student's t-distribution |

TINV | Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution |

TREND | Returns values along a linear trend |

TRIMMEAN | Returns the mean of the interior of a data set |

TTEST | Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test |

VAR | Estimates variance based on a sample |

VARA | Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values |

VARP | Calculates variance based on the entire population |

VARPA | Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values |

WEIBULL | Returns the Weibull distribution |

ZTEST | Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test |

## Text functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

ASC | Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters |

BAHTTEXT | Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format |

CHAR | Returns the character specified by the code number |

CLEAN | Removes all nonprintable characters from text |

CODE | Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string |

CONCATENATE | Joins several text items into one text item |

DOLLAR | Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format |

EXACT | Checks to see if two text values are identical |

FIND, FINDB | Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive) |

FIXED | Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals |

JIS | Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters |

LEFT, LEFTB | Returns the leftmost characters from a text value |

LEN, LENB | Returns the number of characters in a text string |

LOWER | Converts text to lowercase |

MID, MIDB | Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify |

PHONETIC | Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string |

PROPER | Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value |

REPLACE, REPLACEB | Replaces characters within text |

REPT | Repeats text a given number of times |

RIGHT, RIGHTB | Returns the rightmost characters from a text value |

SEARCH, SEARCHB | Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive) |

SUBSTITUTE | Substitutes new text for old text in a text string |

T | Converts its arguments to text |

TEXT | Formats a number and converts it to text |

TRIM | Removes spaces from text |

UPPER | Converts text to uppercase |

VALUE | Converts a text argument to a number |

## External functions

Function |
Description |
---|---|

EUROCONVERT | Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation) |

SQL.REQUEST | Connects with an external data source and runs a query from a worksheet, then returns the result as an array without the need for macro programming |

Applies to:

Excel 2003