# Create or change a cell reference

A cell reference (cell reference: The set of coordinates that a cell occupies on a worksheet. For example, the reference of the cell that appears at the intersection of column B and row 3 is B3.) refers to a cell or a range of cells on a worksheet and can be used in a formula (formula: A sequence of values, cell references, names, functions, or operators in a cell that together produce a new value. A formula always begins with an equal sign (=).) so that Microsoft Office Excel can find the values or data that you want that formula to calculate.

In one or several formulas, you can use a cell reference to refer to:

- Data from one cell on the worksheet.
- Data that is contained in different areas of a worksheet.
- Data in cells on other worksheets in the same workbook.

For example:

This formula: |
Refers to: |
And Returns: |
---|---|---|

=C2 | Cell C2 | The value in cell C2. |

=Asset-Liability | The cells named Asset and Liability | The value in the cell named Liability subtracted from the value in the cell named Asset. |

{=Week1+Week2} | The cell ranges named Week1 and Week2 | The sum of the values of the cell ranges named Week1 and Week 2 as an array formula. |

=Sheet2!B2 | Cell B2 on Sheet2 | The value in cell B2 on Sheet2. |

Create a cell reference on the same worksheet

Create a cell reference to another worksheet

Create a cell reference by using the Link Cells command

Change a cell reference to another cell reference

Change a cell reference to a named range

Switch between relative, absolute, and mixed references

## Create a cell reference on the same worksheet

- Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
- In the formula bar (formula bar: A bar at the top of the Excel window that you use to enter or edit values or formulas in cells or charts. Displays the constant value or formula stored in the active cell.) , type
**=**(equal sign). - Do one of the following:
**Cell reference**To create a reference, select a cell or range of cells on the same worksheet.

Cell references and the borders around the corresponding cells are color-coded to make it easier to work with them.

You can drag the border of the cell selection to move the selection, or drag the corner of the border to expand the selection.

**Defined name**To create a reference to a defined name, do one of the following:- Type the name.
- Press F3, select the name in the
**Paste name**box, and then click**OK**.

** Note ** If there is no square corner on a color-coded border, the reference is to a named (name: A word or string of characters that represents a cell, range of cells, formula, or constant value. Use easy-to-understand names, such as Products, to refer to hard to understand ranges, such as Sales!C20:C30.) range.

- Do one of the following:
- If you are creating a reference in a single cell, press ENTER.
- If you are creating a reference in an array formula (array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values, and then returns either a single result or multiple results. Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.), press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

The reference can be a single cell or a range of cells, and the array formula can be one that calculates single or multiple results.

## Create a cell reference to another worksheet

You can refer to cells that are on other worksheets by appending the name of the worksheet followed by an exclamation point (**!**) to the start of the cell reference. In the following example, the worksheet function named **AVERAGE** calculates the average value for the range B1:B10 on the worksheet named Marketing in the same workbook.

- Click the cell in which you want to enter the formula.
- In the formula bar (formula bar: A bar at the top of the Excel window that you use to enter or edit values or formulas in cells or charts. Displays the constant value or formula stored in the active cell.) , type
**=**(equal sign). - Click the tab for the worksheet to be referenced.
- Select the cell or range of cells to be referenced.

** Note ** If the name of the other worksheet contains nonalphabetical characters, you must enclose the name (or the path) within single quotation marks (**'**).

## Create a cell reference by using the Link Cells command

Alternatively, you can copy and paste a cell reference and then use the **Link Cells** command to create a cell reference. You may want to use this command to:

- Easily display important information in a more prominent position. Let's say that you have a workbook with a number of worksheets, and on each worksheet is a cell that displays summary information about the other cells on that worksheet. To make these summary cells more prominent, you can create a cell reference to them on the first worksheet of the workbook, which enables you to see summary information about the whole workbook on the first worksheet.
- Make it easier to create cell references between worksheets and workbooks. The
**Link Cells**command automatically pastes the correct syntax for you.

- Click the cell that contains the data you want to link to.
- On the
**Home**tab, in the**Clipboard**group, click**Copy**.

**Keyboard shortcut** You can also press CTRL+C.

- Click the cell that you want to link from.
- On the
**Home**tab, in the**Clipboard**group, click**Paste**.

By default, the **Paste Options** button appears when you paste copied data.

- Click the
**Paste Options**button, and then click**Link Cells**.

## Change a cell reference to another cell reference

- Double-click the cell that contains the formula that you want to change. Excel highlights each cell or range of cells with a different color.
- Do one of the following:
- To move a cell or range reference to a different cell or range, drag the color-coded border of the cell or range to the new cell or range.
- To include more or fewer cells in a reference, drag a corner of the border.
- In the formula bar (formula bar: A bar at the top of the Excel window that you use to enter or edit values or formulas in cells or charts. Displays the constant value or formula stored in the active cell.) , select the reference in the formula, and then type a new reference.
- Press F3, select the name in the
**Paste name**box, and then click**OK**. - Press ENTER, or, for an array formula (array formula: A formula that performs multiple calculations on one or more sets of values, and then returns either a single result or multiple results. Array formulas are enclosed between braces { } and are entered by pressing CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.), press CTRL+SHIFT+ENTER.

## Change a cell reference to a named range

Frequently, if you have defined a name to a cell reference after you have entered a cell reference in a formula, you may want to update the existing cell references to the defined names.

- Do one of the following:
- Select the range of cells that contains formulas in which you want to replace cell references with defined names.
- Select a single, empty cell to change the references to names in all formulas on the worksheet.
- On the
**Formulas**tab, in the**Defined Names**group, click the arrow next to**Define Name**, and then click**Apply Names**.

- In the
**Apply names**box, click one or more names, and then click**OK**.

## Switch between relative, absolute, and mixed references

- Select the cell that contains the formula.
- In the formula bar (formula bar: A bar at the top of the Excel window that you use to enter or edit values or formulas in cells or charts. Displays the constant value or formula stored in the active cell.) , select the reference that you want to change.
- Press F4 to switch between the reference types.

For more information about the different type of cell references, see Overview of formulas.