# COUNTIFS function

This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the **COUNTIFS** function (function: A prewritten formula that takes a value or values, performs an operation, and returns a value or values. Use functions to simplify and shorten formulas on a worksheet, especially those that perform lengthy or complex calculations.) in Microsoft Excel.

## Description

Applies criteria to cells across multiple ranges and counts the number of times all criteria are met.

## Syntax

COUNTIFS(criteria_range1, criteria1, [criteria_range2, criteria2]…)

The COUNTIFS function syntax has the following arguments (argument: A value that provides information to an action, an event, a method, a property, a function, or a procedure.):

**criteria_range1**Required. The first range in which to evaluate the associated criteria.**criteria1**Required. The criteria in the form of a number, expression, cell reference, or text that define which cells will be counted. For example, criteria can be expressed as 32, ">32", B4, "apples", or "32".**criteria_range2, criteria2, ...**Optional. Additional ranges and their associated criteria. Up to 127 range/criteria pairs are allowed.

** Important ** Each additional range must have the same number of rows and columns as the **criteria_range1** argument. The ranges do not have to be adjacent to each other.

## Remarks

- Each range's criteria is applied one cell at a time. If all of the first cells meet their associated criteria, the count increases by 1. If all of the second cells meet their associated criteria, the count increases by 1 again, and so on until all of the cells are evaluated.
- If the criteria argument is a reference to an empty cell, the
**COUNTIFS**function treats the empty cell as a 0 value. - You can use the wildcard characters— the question mark (?) and asterisk (*) — in criteria. A question mark matches any single character, and an asterisk matches any sequence of characters. If you want to find an actual question mark or asterisk, type a tilde (
**~**) before the character.

## Examples

### Example 1

Use the embedded workbook shown here to work with examples of this function. You can inspect and change existing formulas, enter your own formulas, and read further information about how the function works.

These examples show how the COUNTIFS function can be used to count the number of times the criteria is met across a range of values.

To work in-depth with this workbook, you can download it to your computer and open it in Excel. For more information, see the article Download an embedded workbook from OneDrive and open it on your computer.

### Example 2

These examples show how the COUNTIFS function can be used with more complex criteria.