This article describes the formula syntax and usage of the CONCATENATE function (function: A prewritten formula that takes a value or values, performs an operation, and returns a value or values. Use functions to simplify and shorten formulas on a worksheet, especially those that perform lengthy or complex calculations.) in Microsoft Office Excel.


The CONCATENATE function joins up to 255 text strings into one text string. The joined items can be text, numbers, cell references, or a combination of those items. For example, if your worksheet contains a person's first name in cell A1 and the person's last name in cell B1, you can combine the two values in another cell by using the following formula:


The second argument in this example (" ") is a space character. You must specify any spaces or punctuation that you want to appear in the results as an argument that is enclosed in quotation marks.


CONCATENATE(text1, [text2], ...)

The CONCATENATE function syntax has the following arguments (argument: A value that provides information to an action, an event, a method, a property, a function, or a procedure.):

  • text1    Required. The first text item to be concatenated.
  • text2 ...    Optional. Additional text items, up to a maximum of 255 items. The items must be separated by commas.

 Note   You can also use the ampersand (&) calculation operator instead of the CONCATENATE function to join text items. For example, =A1 & B1 returns the same value as =CONCATENATE(A1, B1).


The example may be easier to understand if you copy it to a blank worksheet.

ShowHow do I copy an example?

  1. Select the example in this article. If you are copying the example in Excel Online, copy and paste one cell at a time.
    Important: Do not select the row or column headers.

Selecting an example from Help

Selecting an example from Help

  1. Press CTRL+C.
  2. Create a blank workbook or worksheet.
  3. In the worksheet, select cell A1, and press CTRL+V. If you are working in Excel Online, repeat copying and pasting for each cell in the example.
    Important: For the example to work properly, you must paste it into cell A1 of the worksheet.
  4. To switch between viewing the results and viewing the formulas that return the results, press CTRL+` (grave accent), or on the Formulas tab, in the Formula Auditing group, click the Show Formulas button.

After you copy the example to a blank worksheet, you can adapt it to suit your needs.






brook trout Andreas Hauser
species Fourth Pine
Formula Description Result
=CONCATENATE("Stream population for ",A2," ",A3," is ",A4,"/mile") Creates a sentence by concatenating the data in column A with other text. Stream population for brook trout species is 32/mile
=CONCATENATE(B2, " ", C2) Concatenates the string in cell B2, a space character, and the value in cell C2. Andreas Hauser
=CONCATENATE(C2, ", ", B2) Concatenates the string in cell C2, a string consisting of a comma and a space character, and the value in cell B2. Hauser, Andreas
=CONCATENATE(B3," & ",C3) Concatenates the string in cell B3, a string consisting of a space, an ampersand, another space, and the value in cell C3. Fourth & Pine
=B3 & " & " & C3 Concatenates the same items as the previous example, but by using the ampersand (&) calculation operator instead of the CONCATENATE function. Fourth & Pine
Applies to:
Excel 2007