You can use the DCount function to determine the number of records that are in a specified set of records (a domain (domain: A set of records that is defined by a table, a query, or an SQL expression. Domain aggregate functions return statistical information about a specific domain or set of records.)). Use the DCount function in a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) module, a macro (macro: An action or a set of actions that you can use to automate tasks. Macros are recorded in the Visual Basic for Applications programming language.), a query expression, or a calculated control (calculated control: A control that is used on a form, report, or data access page to display the result of an expression. The result is recalculated each time there is a change in any of the values on which the expression is based.).
For example, you could use the DCount function in a module to return the number of records in an Orders table that correspond to orders placed on a particular date.
DCount(expr, domain [, criteria] )
The DCount function syntax has these arguments:
||Required. An expression that identifies the field for which you want to count records. It can be a string expression (string expression: An expression that evaluates to a sequence of contiguous characters. Elements of the expression can be: functions that return a string or a string Variant (VarType 8); a string literal, constant, variable, or Variant.) identifying a field in a table or query, or it can be an expression that performs a calculation on data in that field. In expr, you can include the name of a field in a table, a control on a form, a constant, or a function. If expr includes a function, it can be either built-in or user-defined, but not another domain aggregate or SQL aggregate function.
||Required. A string expression identifying the set of records that constitutes the domain. It can be a table name or a query name for a query that does not require a parameter.
||Optional. A string expression used to restrict the range of data on which the DCount function is performed. For example, criteria is often equivalent to the WHERE clause in an SQL expression, without the word WHERE. If criteria is omitted, the DCount function evaluates expr against the entire domain. Any field that is included in criteria must also be a field in domain; otherwise the DCount function returns a Null (Null: A value you can enter in a field or use in expressions or queries to indicate missing or unknown data. In Visual Basic, the Null keyword indicates a Null value. Some fields, such as primary key fields, can't contain a Null value.).
Use the DCount function to count the number of records in a domain when you don't need to know their particular values. Although the expr argument can perform a calculation on a field, the DCount function simply tallies the number of records. The value of any calculation performed by expr is unavailable.
Use the DCount function in a calculated control when you need to specify criteria to restrict the range of data on which the function is performed. For example, to display the number of orders to be shipped to California, set the ControlSource property of a text box to the following expression:
=DCount("[OrderID]", "Orders", "[ShipRegion] = 'CA'")
If you simply want to count all records in domain without specifying any restrictions, use the Count function.
The Count function has been optimized to speed counting of records in queries. Use the Count function in a query expression instead of the DCount function, and set optional criteria to enforce any restrictions on the results. Use the DCount function when you must count records in a domain from within a code module or macro, or in a calculated control.
You can use the DCount function to count the number of records containing a particular field that isn't in the record source on which your form or report is based. For example, you could display the number of orders in the Orders table in a calculated control on a form based on the Products table.
The DCount function doesn't count records that contain Null values in the field referenced by expr unless expr is the asterisk (*) wildcard character. If you use an asterisk, the DCount function calculates the total number of records, including those that contain Null fields. The following example calculates the number of records in an Orders table.
intX = DCount("*", "Orders")
If domain is a table with a primary key (primary key: One or more fields (columns) whose values uniquely identify each record in a table. A primary key cannot allow Null values and must always have a unique index. A primary key is used to relate a table to foreign keys in other tables.), you can also count the total number of records by setting expr to the primary key field, since there will never be a Null in the primary key field.
If expr identifies multiple fields, separate the field names with a concatenation operator, either an ampersand (&) or the addition operator (+). If you use an ampersand to separate the fields, the DCount function returns the number of records containing data in any of the listed fields. If you use the addition operator, the DCount function returns only the number of records containing data in all of the listed fields. The following example demonstrates the effects of each operator when used with a field that contains data in all records (ShipName) and a field that contains no data (ShipRegion).
intW = DCount("[ShipName]", "Orders")
intX = DCount("[ShipRegion]", "Orders")
intY = DCount("[ShipName] + [ShipRegion]", "Orders")
intZ = DCount("[ShipName] & [ShipRegion]", "Orders")
Note The ampersand is the preferred operator for performing string concatenation. You should avoid using the addition operator for anything other than numeric addition, unless you specifically wish to propagate Nulls through an expression.
Unsaved changes to records in domain aren't included when you use this function. If you want the DCount function to be based on the changed values, you must first save the changes by clicking Save Record under Records on the Data tab, moving the focus to another record, or by using the Update method.
Note Examples that follow demonstrate the use of this function in a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) module. For more information about working with VBA, select Developer Reference in the drop-down list next to Search and enter one or more terms in the search box.
The following function returns the number of orders shipped to a specified country/region after a specified ship date. The domain is an Orders table.
Public Function OrdersCount _
(ByVal strCountryRegion As String, _
ByVal dteShipDate As Date) As Integer
OrdersCount = "[ShippedDate]", "Orders", _
"[ShipCountryRegion] = '" & strCountryRegion & _
"' AND [ShippedDate] > #" & dteShipDate & "#"
To call the function, use the following line of code in the Immediate window:
:OrdersCount "UK", #1/1/96#