Access Glossary

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absolute or fixed positioning

Places the element relative to either the element's parent or, if there isn't one, the body. Values for the element's Left and Top properties are relative to the upper-left corner of the element's parent.

Access workspace

A workspace that uses the Access database engine to access a data source. The data source can be an Access database file, an ODBC database, such as a Paradox or Microsoft SQL Server database, or an ISAM database.

action

The basic building block of a macro; a self-contained instruction that can be combined with other actions to automate tasks. This is sometimes called a command in other macro languages.

action argument

Additional information required by some macro actions. For example, the object affected by the action or special conditions under which the action is carried out.

action list

The list that appears when you click the arrow in the Action column of the Macro object tab.

action query

A query that copies or changes data. Action queries include append, delete, make-table, and update queries. They are identified by an exclamation point (!) next to their names in the Navigation Pane.

action row

A row in the upper part of the Macro object tab in which you enter macro names, actions, arguments, and comments associated with a particular macro or macro group.

ADE file

An Access project (.adp file) with all modules compiled and all editable source code removed.

Advanced Filter/Sort window

A window in which you can create a filter from scratch. You enter criteria expressions in the filter design grid to restrict the records in the open form or datasheet to a subset of records that meet the criteria.

aggregate function

A function, such as Sum, Count, Avg, or Var, that you use to calculate totals.

anonymous replica

In an Access database (.mdb file format only), a special type of replica in which you don't keep track of individual users. The anonymous replica is particularly useful in an Internet situation where you expect many users to download replicas.

ANSI SQL query mode

One of two types of SQL syntax: ANSI-89 SQL (also called Microsoft Jet SQL and ANSI SQL), which is the traditional Jet SQL syntax; and ANSI-92 SQL, which has new and different reserved words, syntax rules, and wildcard characters.

append query

An action query that adds the records in a query's result set to the end of an existing table.

application background

The background area of an application window.

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) 7-bit character set used to represent letters and symbols found on a standard U.S. keyboard.

autofiltering

Filtering data in PivotTable or PivotChart view by selecting one or more items in a field that allows filtering.

autoformat

A collection of formats that determines the appearance of the controls and sections in a form or report.

automatic link

A link from an OLE object in Access to an OLE server that automatically updates the object in Access when the information in the object file changes.

AutoNumber data type

In an Access database, a field data type that automatically stores a unique number for each record as it is added to a table. Three kinds of numbers can be generated: sequential, random, and Replication ID.



base table

A table in an Access database. You can manipulate the structure of a base table by using the DAO objects or data definition (DDL) SQL statements, and you can modify data in a base table by using Recordset objects or action queries.

bigint data type

In an Access project, a data type of 8 bytes (64 bits) that stores whole numbers in the range of -2^63 (-9,223,372,036,854,775,808) through 2^63-1 (9,223,372,036,854,775,807).

binary data type

In an Access project, a fixed-length data type with a maximum of 8,000 bytes of binary data.

bit data type

In an Access project, a data type that stores either a 1 or 0 value. Integer values other than 1 or 0 are accepted, but they are always interpreted as 1.

bit mask

A value that is used with bitwise operators (And, Eqv, Imp, Not, Or, and Xor) to test, set, or reset the state of individual bits in a bitwise field value.

bitwise comparison

A bit-by-bit comparison between identically positioned bits in two numeric expressions.

Bookmark

A property of a Recordset object or a form that contains a binary string identifying the current record.

bound column

The column in a list box, combo box, or drop-down list box that is bound to the field specified by the control's ControlSource property.

bound control

A control used on a form, report, or data access page to display or modify data from a table, query, or SQL statement. The control's ControlSource property stores the field name to which the control is bound.

bound hyperlink control

A control that is used on a data access page to bind a link, an intranet address, or an Internet address to an underlying Text field. You can click the hyperlink to go to the target location.

bound object frame

A control on a form or report that is used to display and manipulate OLE objects that are stored in tables.

bound picture

A control that is used on a form, report, or data access page to bind an image to an OLE Object field in an Access database or an image column in an Access project.

bound span control

A control that is used on a data access page to bind HTML code to a Text or Memo field in an Access database or to a text, ntext, or varchar column in an Access project. You cannot edit the contents of a bound span control.

builder

An Access tool that simplifies a task. For example, you can quickly create a complex expression by using the Expression Builder.

built-in toolbar

In Access 2003 and earlier, a toolbar that is part of the Access user interface when it is installed on your computer. In contrast, a custom toolbar is one that you create for your own database application. In Access 2007, toolbars are replaced by the Ribbon, which arranges commands in related groups on tabs. In addition, you can add commands that you frequently use to the Quick Access Toolbar.

Byte data type

An Access database data type that is used to hold small positive integers ranging from 0 to 255.



calculated control

A control that is used on a form, report, or data access page to display the result of an expression. The result is recalculated each time there is a change in any of the values on which the expression is based.

calculated field

A field, defined in a query, that displays the result of an expression rather than displaying stored data. The value is recalculated each time a value in the expression changes.

call tree

All modules that might be called by any procedure in the module in which code is currently running.

caption section

The section on a grouped data access page that displays captions for columns of data. It appears immediately before the group header. You cannot add a bound control to a caption section.

Cartesian product

The result of executing an SQL SELECT statement that includes two or more tables in the FROM clause, but no WHERE or JOIN clause that indicates how the tables are to be joined.

cascade

The process of one action triggering another action. For example, when a cascading update relationship is defined for two or more tables, an update to the primary key in the primary table automatically triggers changes to the foreign table.

cascading delete

For relationships that enforce referential integrity between tables, the deletion of all related records in the related table or tables when a record in the primary table is deleted.

cascading event

A sequence of events caused by an event procedure directly or indirectly calling itself; also called an event cascade or a recursion. Be careful using cascading events, because they often result in stack-overflow or other run-time errors.

cascading update

For relationships that enforce referential integrity between tables, the updating of all related records in the related table or tables when a record in the primary table is changed.

category field

A field that is displayed in the category area of PivotChart view. Items in a category field appear as labels on the category axis.

channel number

An integer that corresponds to an open Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) channel. Channel numbers are assigned by Microsoft Windows 95 or later, created by using the DDEInitiate function, and used by other DDE functions and statements.

char data type

In an Access project, a fixed-length data type with a maximum of 8,000 ANSI characters.

character code

A number that represents a particular character in a set, such as the ANSI character set.

chart

A graphical representation of data in a form, report, or data access page.

check box

A control that indicates whether an option is selected. A check mark appears in the box when the option is selected.

CHECK constraint

Allows for business rules that span multiple tables. For example, the Order table could have a CHECK constraint that would prevent orders for a customer from exceeding a credit limit defined for the customer in the Customer table.

class module

A module that can contain the definition for a new object. Each instance of a class creates a new object. Procedures defined in the module become properties and methods of the object. Class modules can exist alone or with forms and reports.

class name

The name used to refer to a class module. If the class module is a form or report module, the class name is prefaced with the type of module — for example, Form_OrderForm.

class name (OLE)

A predefined name used to refer to an OLE object in Visual Basic. It consists of the name of the application used to create the OLE object, the object's type, and, optionally, the version number of the application. Example: Excel.Sheet.

code stub

A segment of Visual Basic code that defines the beginning and end of a procedure.

collision

A conflict that occurs during a batch update. A client reads data from the server and then attempts to modify that data in a batch update, but before the update attempt is executed, another client changes the original server data.

column

A location within a database table that stores a particular type of data. It is also the visual representation of a field in a datasheet and, in an Access database, the query design grid or the filter design grid.

column area

The part of PivotTable view that contains column fields.

column field

A field in the column area of PivotTable view. Items in column fields are listed across the top of a PivotTable list. Inner column fields are closest to the detail area; outer column fields are displayed above the inner column fields.

column selector

The horizontal bar at the top of a column. You can click a column selector to select an entire column in the query design grid or the filter design grid.

combo box

A control used on a form that provides the combined functionality of a list box and a text box. You can type a value in a combo box, or you can click the control to display a list and then select an item from that list.

command button

A control that runs a macro, calls a Visual Basic function, or runs an event procedure. A command button is sometimes called a push button in other programs.

comparison operator

An operator that is used to compare two values or expressions. For example, < (less than), > (greater than), and = (equal to).

compound control

A control and an attached label, such as a text box with an attached label.

conditional filtering

Filtering a field to show the top or bottom n items based on a total. For example, you could filter for the three cities that generated the most sales or the five products that are least profitable.

conditional formatting

Formatting the contents of a control in a form or report based on one or more conditions. A condition can reference another control, the control with the focus, or a user-defined Visual Basic for Applications function.

conflict

A condition that occurs if data has changed in the same record of two replica set members. When a conflict occurs, a winning change is selected and applied in all replicas, and the losing change is recorded as a conflict in all replicas.

connection string

A string expression that is used to open an external database.

constraint

A restriction placed on the value that can be entered into a column or a row. For example, values in the Age column cannot be less than 0 or greater than 110.

continuous form

A form that displays more than one record on the screen in Form view.

control containing a hyperlink

A control that makes it possible for a user to jump to a document, Web page, or object. An example is a text box that is bound to a field that contains hyperlinks.

crosstab query

A query that calculates a sum, average, count, or other type of total on records, and then groups the result by two types of information: one down the left side of the datasheet and the other across the top.

Currency data type

In an Access database, a data type that is useful for calculations involving money or for fixed-point calculations in which accuracy is extremely important.

current record

The record in a recordset from which you can modify or retrieve data. There can be only one current record in a recordset at any given time, but a recordset may have no current record — for example, after a record has been deleted from a dynaset-type recordset.

cursor data type

In an Access project, a data type you can use only for creating a cursor variable. This data type cannot be used for columns in a table. A cursor is a mechanism used to work with one row at a time in the result set of a SELECT statement.

custom group

An item of a custom group field. A custom group contains two or more items from a row or column field.

custom group field

A field in the row or column area that contains custom groups as its items.

custom order

User-defined sort order. For example, you could define a custom sort order to display values in the EmployeeTitle column on the basis of the title's seniority.

custom properties dialog box

A custom property sheet that allows users to set properties for an ActiveX control.

custom toolbar

In Access 2003 and earlier versions, a toolbar that you create for your application. In contrast, a built-in toolbar is part of Access when it is installed on your computer.



DAO object

An object defined by the Data Access Objects (DAO) library. You can use DAO objects, such as Database, TableDef, and Recordset, to represent objects that are used to organize and manipulate data, such as tables and queries, in code.

data access objects

A programming interface that you can use to access and manipulate database objects.

Data Access Objects (DAO)

data access page

A Web page designed for viewing and working with data from the Internet or an intranet. Its data is typically stored in an Access database.

data access page properties

Attributes of a data access page that identify the database to which the page is connected and define the page's appearance and behavior.

data area

The part of PivotTable or PivotChart view that contains summary data. Values in the data area are displayed as records in PivotTable view and as data points in PivotChart view.

data collection

A method of gathering information from users by sending and receiving HTML forms or InfoPath 2007 forms from Access 2007. In Access, you create a data collection request and send it to users in a form contained in an e-mail message. Users then complete a form and return it to you.

data definition

The fields in underlying tables and queries, and the expressions, that make up the record source for a data access page.

data definition language (DDL)

The language used to describe attributes of a database, especially tables, fields, indexes, and storage strategy. ANSI defines this to have the tokens CREATE, DROP, and ALTER. DDL is a subset of structured query language (SQL).

data definition query

An SQL-specific query that can create, alter, or delete a table, or create or delete an index in a database. ANSI defines these as DDL queries and uses the tokens CREATE, DROP, and ALTER.

data field

A field that contains summarized data in PivotTable or PivotChart view. A data field usually contains numeric data.

data item

An application-specific piece of data that can be transferred over a (Dynamic Data Exchange) DDE channel.

data label

A label that provides additional information about a data marker, which represents a single data point or value.

data manipulation language (DML)

The language used to retrieve, insert, delete and update data in a database. DML is a subset of Structured Query Language (SQL).

data marker

A bar, area, dot, slice, or other symbol in a chart that represents a single data point or value. Related data markers in a chart constitute a data series.

data series

Related data points that are plotted in a chart. Each data series in a chart has a unique color or pattern. You can plot one or more data series in a chart.

data source control

The engine behind data access pages and Microsoft Office Web Components that manages the connection to the underlying data source. The data source control has no visual representation.

database application

A set of objects that can include tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and code modules that are designed to work together to make a database easier to use. A database application is typically deployed to a group of users.

database diagram

A graphical representation of any portion of a database schema. It can be either a whole or partial picture of the structure of the database. It includes tables, the columns they contain, and the relationships between the tables.

Database Documenter

A tool that builds a report containing detailed information about the objects in a database.

database objects

An Access database contains objects such as tables, queries, forms, reports, pages, macros, and modules. An Access project contains objects such as forms, reports, pages, macros, and modules.

database replication

The process of creating two or more special copies (replicas) of an Access database. Replicas can be synchronized, changes made to data in one replica, or design changes made in the Design Master, are sent to other replicas.

Database window

In Access 2003 and earlier, the window that appears when you open an Access database or an Access project. It displays shortcuts for creating new database objects and opening existing objects. In Access 2007, the Database window is replaced by the Navigation Pane.

data-definition query

An SQL-specific query that contains data definition language (DDL) statements. These statements allow you to create or alter objects in the database.

datasheet

Data from a table, form, query, view, or stored procedure that is displayed in a row-and-column format.

Datasheet view

A view that displays data from a table, form, query, view, or stored procedure in a row-and-column format. In Datasheet view, you can edit fields, add and delete data, and search for data. In Access 2007, you can also modify and add fields to a table in Datasheet view.

date expression

Any expression that can be interpreted as a date, including date literals, numbers that look like dates, strings that look like dates, and dates returned from functions.

date literal

Any sequence of characters with a valid format that is surrounded by number signs (#). Valid formats include the date format specified by the locale settings for your code or the universal date format.

date separators

Characters used to separate the day, month, and year when date values are formatted. The characters are determined by system settings or by using the Format function.

Date/Time data type

An Access database data type that is used to hold date and time information.

datetime data type

In an Access project, a date and time data type that ranges from January 1, 1753, to December 31, 9999, to an accuracy of three-hundredths of a second, or 3.33 milliseconds.

DBCS

A character set that uses 1 or 2 bytes to represent a character, allowing more than 256 characters to be represented.

Decimal data type (Access database)

An exact numeric data type that holds values from -10^28 - 1 through 10^28 - 1. You can specify the scale (maximum number of digits) and precision (maximum total number of digits to the right of the decimal point).

Decimal data type (Access project)

An exact numeric data type that holds values from -10^38 - 1 through 10^38 - 1. You can specify the scale (maximum total number of digits) and precision (maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal point).

declaration

Nonexecutable code that names a constant, variable, or procedure, and specifies its characteristics, such as data type. For DLL procedures, declarations specify names, libraries, and arguments.

Declarations section

The section of a module containing declarations that apply to every procedure in the module. It can include declarations for variables, constants, user-defined data types, and external procedures in a dynamic-link library.

default control style

The default property setting of a control type. You customize a control type before you create two or more similar controls to avoid customizing each control individually.

default property

A property that you can set for a control so that each time a new control of that type is created, the property will have the same value.

default value

A value that is automatically entered in a field or control when you add a new record. You can either accept the default value or override it by typing a value.

delete query

A query (SQL statement) that removes rows matching the criteria that you specify from one or more tables.

design grid

The grid that you use to design a query or filter in query Design view or in the Advanced Filter/Sort window. For queries, this grid was formerly known as the QBE grid.

Design Master

The only member of the replica set in which you can make changes to the database structure that can be propagated to other replicas.

Design view

A view that shows the design of these database objects: tables, queries, forms, reports, and macros. In Design view, you can create new database objects and modify the design of existing objects.

detail area

The part of PivotTable view that contains detail and total fields.

detail field

A field that displays all rows, or records, from the underlying record source.

detail section

Used to contain the main body of a form or report. This section usually contains controls bound to the fields in the record source but can also contain unbound controls, such as labels that identify a field's contents.

direct synchronization

A method used to synchronize data between replicas that are connected directly to the local area network and are available through shared network folders.

disabled control

A control that appears dimmed on a form. A disabled control cannot get the focus and will not respond to mouse clicks.

document properties

Properties, such as title, subject, and author, that are stored with each data access page.

domain

A set of records that is defined by a table, a query, or an SQL expression. Domain aggregate functions return statistical information about a specific domain or set of records.

domain aggregate function

A function, such as DAvg or DMax, that is used to calculate statistics over a set of records (a domain).

double precision

Characteristic of a number stored in twice the amount (two words; typically 8 bytes) of computer memory that is required for storing a less precise (single-precision) number. Commonly handled by a computer in floating-point form.

drop area

An area in PivotTable view or PivotChart view in which you can drop fields from the field list to display the data in the field. The labels on each drop area indicate the types of fields that you can create in the view.

drop-down list box

A control on a data access page that, when clicked, displays a list from which you can select a value. You cannot type a value in a drop-down list box.

dynamic-link library

A set of routines that can be called from Visual Basic procedures and are loaded and linked into your application at run time.



echo

The process of Access updating or repainting the screen while a macro is running.

edit control

Also known as a text box, an edit control is a rectangular region in which a user can enter and edit text.

embed

To insert a copy of an OLE object from another application. The source of the object, called the OLE server, can be any application that supports object linking and embedding. Changes to an embedded object are not reflected in the original object.

enabled database

A previous-version database that has been opened in Access 2000 or later without converting its format. To change the design of the database, you must open it in the version of Access in which it was created.

error number

A whole number in the range 0 - 65,535 that corresponds to the Number property setting of the Err object. When combined with the Description property setting of the Err object, this number represents a particular error message.

exclusive

A mode of access to data in a database that is shared over a network. When you open a database in exclusive mode, you prevent others from opening the database.

expand control

A control on a data access page that, when clicked, expands or collapses a grouped record to display or hide its detail records.

expand indicator

A button that is used to expand or collapse groups of records; it displays the plus (+) or minus (-) sign.

export

To copy data and database objects to another database, spreadsheet file, or file format so that another database or program can use the data or database objects. You can export data to a variety of supported databases, programs, and file formats.

Expression Builder

An Access tool that you can use to create an expression. It includes a list of common expressions that you can select.

external database

The source of the table that is to be linked or imported to the current database, or the destination of a table that is to be exported.

external table

A table outside the currently open Access database or Access project.



field data types

A characteristic of a field that determines what kind of data it can store. For example, a field whose data type is Text can store data consisting of either text or numeric characters, but a Number field can store only numerical data.

Field List pane

A pane that lists all the fields in the underlying record source or database object.

field selector

A small box or bar that you click to select an entire column in a datasheet.

file number

A number used in the Open statement to open a file. Use file numbers in the range 1 - 255, inclusive, for files that are not accessible to other programs. Use file numbers in the range 256 - 511 for files accessible from other programs.

Fill

A report magnification that fills the Report Snapshot window by fitting either the width or the height of a page, depending on whether the report is in portrait or landscape orientation.

filter

A set of criteria applied to data in order to display a subset of the data or to sort the data. In Access, you can use filtering techniques, such as Filter By Selection and Filter By Form, to filter data.

filter area

The part of a PivotTable view or PivotChart view that contains filter fields.

Filter By Form

A technique for filtering data that uses a version of the current form or datasheet with empty fields in which you can type the values that you want the filtered records to contain.

Filter By Selection

A technique for filtering records in a form or datasheet in which you retrieve only records that contain the selected value.

Filter Excluding Selection

A technique in which you filter records in a form or datasheet to retrieve only those records that don't contain the selected value.

filter field

A field in the filter area that you can use to filter data displayed in PivotTable view or PivotChart view. Filter fields perform the same functions as page fields in Microsoft Excel PivotTable reports.

Filter For Input

A technique for filtering records that uses a value or expression that you enter to find only records that contain the value or satisfy the expression.

fixed-width text file

A file containing data in which each field has a fixed width.

float data type

In an Access project, an approximate numeric data type with 15-digit precision. The float data type can hold positive values from approximately 2.23E - 308 through 1.79E + 308, negative values from approximately -2.23E - 308 through -1.79E + 308, or zero.

floating

Able to move freely as its own window. A floating window is always on top. The Expression Builder, the Database Documenter, the toolbox, and palettes can float.

foreign key

One or more table fields (columns) that refer to the primary key field or fields in another table. A foreign key indicates how the tables are related.

foreign table

A table (such as Customer Orders) that contains a foreign key field (such as CustomerID) that is the primary key field in another table (such as Customers) in the database and that is usually on the "many" side of a one-to-many relationship

form

An Access database object on which you place controls for taking actions or for entering, displaying, and editing data in fields.

form footer

Used to display instructions for using a form, command buttons, or unbound controls to accept input. Appears at the bottom of the form in Form view and at the end of a printout.

form header

Used to display a title for a form, instructions for using the form, or command buttons that open related forms or carry out other tasks. The form header appears at the top of the form in Form view and at the beginning of a printout.

form module

A module that includes Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) code for all event procedures triggered by events occurring on a specific form or its controls.

Form object tab

An object tab in which you work with forms in Design view, Form view, Datasheet view, or Print Preview.

form properties

Attributes of a form that affect its appearance or behavior. For example, the DefaultView property is a form property that determines whether a form will automatically open in Form view or Datasheet view.

form selector

The box where the rulers meet, in the upper-left corner of a form in Design view. Use the box to perform form-level operations, such as selecting the form.

Form view

A view that displays a form that you use to show or accept data. Form view is the primary means of adding and modifying data in tables. You can also change the design of a form in this view.

format

Specifies how data is displayed and printed. An Access database provides standard formats for specific data types, as does an Access project for the equivalent SQL data types. You can also create custom formats.

front-end/back-end application

A database application consisting of a "back-end" database file that contains tables, and copies of a "front-end" database file that contain all other database objects with links to the "back-end" tables.

function

A query that takes input parameters and returns a result like a stored procedure. Types: scalar (multistatement; returns one value), inline (one statement; an updateable table value), and table (multistatement; table value).

Function procedure

In Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), a procedure that returns a value and that can be used in an expression. You declare a function by using the Function statement and end it by using the End Function statement.



General sort order

The default sort order determines how characters are sorted in the entire database, such as in tables, queries, and reports. You should define the General sort order if you plan to use a database with multiple language editions of Access.

global menu bar

In Access 2003 and earlier, a special custom menu bar that replaces the built-in menu bar in all windows in your database application, except where you've specified a custom menu bar for a form or report.

global replica

A replica in which changes are fully tracked and can be exchanged with any global replica in the set. A global replica can also exchange changes with any local or anonymous replicas for which it becomes the hub.

global shortcut menu

A custom shortcut menu that replaces the built-in shortcut menu for the following objects: fields in table and query datasheets; forms and form controls in Form view, Datasheet view, and Print Preview; and reports in Print Preview.

globally unique identifier (GUID)

A 16-byte field used in an Access database to establish a unique identifier for replication. GUIDs are used to identify replicas, replica sets, tables, records, and other objects. In an Access database, GUIDs are referred to as Replication IDs.

grid (Datasheet view)

Vertical and horizontal lines that visually divide rows and columns of data into cells in a table, query, form, view, or stored procedure. You can show and hide these grid lines.

grid (Design view)

An arrangement of vertical and horizontal dotted and solid lines that help you position controls precisely when you design a form or report.

group account

A collection of user accounts in a workgroup, identified by group name and personal ID (PID). Permissions assigned to a group apply to all users in the group.

group filter control

A drop-down list box control on a data access page that retrieves records from an underlying recordset based on the value that you select from the list. On a grouped page, the control retrieves a specific group of records.

group footer

Used to place information, such as group name or group total, at the end of a group of records.

group header

Used to place information, such as group name or group total, at the beginning of a group of records.

group level

The depth at which a group in a report or data access page is nested inside other groups. Groups are nested when a set of records is grouped by more than one field, expression, or group record source.

grouped controls

Two or more controls that can be treated as one unit while designing a form or report. You can select the group instead of selecting each individual control as you are arranging controls or setting properties.

grouped data access page

A data access page that has two or more group levels.

GUID data type

A unique identification string used with remote procedure calls. Every interface and object class uses a GUID (Globally Unique Identifier) for identification. A GUID is a 128-bit value. 



host application

Any application that supports the use of Visual Basic for Applications.

hub

A global replica to which all replicas in the replica set synchronize their changes. The hub serves as the parent replica.

hyperlink address

The path to a destination such as an object, document, or Web page. A hyperlink address can be a URL (address to an Internet or intranet site) or a UNC network path (address to a file on a local area network).

Hyperlink data type

A data type for an Access database field that stores hyperlink addresses. An address can have up to four parts and is written using the following format: displaytext#address#subaddress#.

hyperlink field

A field that stores hyperlink addresses. In an Access database, it is a field with a Hyperlink data type. In an Access project, it is a field that has the IsHyperlink property set to True.

hyperlink image control

A control that is used on a data access page to display an unbound image that represents a hyperlink to a file or Web page. In Browse mode, you can click the image to go to the target location.



IDC/HTX files

Microsoft Internet Information Server uses an IDC file and an HTX file to retrieve data from an ODBC data source and format it as an HTML document.

identifier (expressions)

An element of an expression that refers to the value of a field, control, or property. For example, Forms![Orders]![OrderID] is an identifier that refers to the value in the OrderID control on the Orders form.

identifier (Visual Basic)

A data member in a Visual Basic code module. An identifier can be a Sub, Function, or Property procedure, a variable, a constant, a DECLARE statement, or a user-defined data type.

image control

A control that is used to display a picture on a form or report.

image data type

In an Access project, a variable-length data type that can hold a maximum of 2^31 - 1 (2,147,483,647) bytes of binary data. It is used to store Binary Large Objects (BLOBs), such as pictures, documents, sounds, and compiled code.

import

To copy data from a text file, spreadsheet file, or database table into an Access table. You can use the imported data to create a new table, or you can append (add) it to an existing table that has a matching data structure.

import/export specification

A specification that stores the information that Access needs to run an import or export operation on a fixed-width or delimited text file.

index

A feature that speeds up searching and sorting in a table based on key values and can enforce uniqueness on the rows in a table. The primary key of a table is automatically indexed. Some fields cannot be indexed because of their data type, such as OLE Object or Attachment.

Indexes window

In an Access database, a window in which you can view or edit a table's indexes or create multiple-field indexes.

indirect synchronization

A synchronization method that is used in a disconnected environment, such as when you travel with a portable computer. You must use the Replication Manager to configure indirect synchronization.

in-place activation

Activation of an OLE object's OLE server from within a field or control. For example, you can play a waveform audio (.wav) file contained in a control by double-clicking the control.

input mask

A format that consists of literal display characters (such as parentheses, periods, and hyphens) and mask characters that specify where data is to be entered as well as what kind of data and how many characters are allowed.

installable ISAM

A driver you can specify that allows access to external database formats such as dBASE, Excel, and Paradox. The Microsoft Access database engine installs (loads) these ISAM drivers when referenced by your application.

instance

An object that is created from the class that contains its definition. For example, multiple instances of a form class share the same code and are loaded with the same controls that were used to design the form class.

int data type

In an Access project, a data type of 4 bytes (32 bits) that stores whole numbers in the range of -2^31 (-2,147,483,648) through 2^31 - 1 (2,147,483,647).

Integer data type

A fundamental data type that holds integers. An Integer variable is stored as a 16-bit (2-byte) number ranging in value from -32,768 to 32,767.

Internet synchronization

Used to synchronize replicas in a disconnected environment in which an Internet server is configured. You must use the Replication Manager to configure Internet synchronization.

intrinsic constant

A constant that is supplied by Access, VBA, ADO, or DAO. These constants are available in the Object Browser by clicking globals in each of these libraries.

item

A unique element of data within a field. When a lower level of items is available for display in a PivotTable list or the field list, an expand indicator (+) appears beside the item.



Jet and Replication Objects

A set of automation interfaces that you can use to perform actions specific to Microsoft Jet databases. Using JRO, you can compact databases, refresh data from the cache, and create and maintain replicated databases.



keyboard handler

Code that determines and responds to keys or key combinations pressed by the user.



label

A control that displays descriptive text, such as a title, a caption, or instructions, on a form or report. Labels may or may not be attached to another control.

Layout view

In Access 2007, a view in which you can make many types of design changes to forms and reports while viewing live data.

left outer join

An outer join in which all the records from the left side of the LEFT JOIN operation in the query's SQL statement are added to the query's results, even if there are no matching values in the joined field from the table on the right.

legend

A box that identifies the patterns or colors assigned to data series or categories in a chart.

library database

A collection of procedures and database objects that you can call from any application. In order to use the items in the library, you must first establish a reference from the current database to the library database.

link (tables)

An action that establishes a connection to data from another program so that you can view and edit the data in both the original program and in Access.

linked table

A table stored in a file outside the open database from which Access can access records. You can add, delete, and edit records in a linked table, but you cannot change its structure.

list index

The sequence of numbers for items in a list, starting with 0 for the first item, 1 for the second item, and so on.

local object

A table, query, form, report, macro, or module that remains in the replica or Design Master in which it was created. Neither the object nor changes to the object are copied to other members in the replica set.

local replica

A replica that exchanges data with its hub or a global replica but not with other replicas in the replica set.

locale

The set of information that corresponds to a given language and country.

locked

The condition of a record, recordset, or database that makes it read-only to all users except the user currently modifying it.

Lookup field

A field, used on a form or report in an Access database, that either displays a list of values retrieved from a table or query, or stores a static set of values.



ACCDE file

An Access 2007 database (.accdb) file with all modules compiled and all editable source code removed.

Access database engine

The part of the Access database system that retrieves and stores data in user and system databases. The engine can be thought of as a data manager upon which database systems, such as Access, are built.

macro

An action or set of actions that you can use to automate tasks.

Macro Builder

The object tab in which you create and modify macros. You can start the Macro Builder from a variety of places, such as a form or report, or directly from the Create tab on the Ribbon.

macro group

A collection of related macros that are stored together under a single macro name. The collection is often referred to simply as a macro.

main form

A form that contains one or more subforms.

make-table query

A query (SQL statement) that creates a new table and then creates records (rows) in that table by copying records from an existing table or query results.

manual link

A link that requires you to take action to update your data after the data in the source document changes.

many-to-many relationship

An association between two tables in which one record in either table can relate to many records in the other table. To establish a many-to-many relationship, create a third table and add the primary key fields from the other two tables to this table.

marquee

Moving text that is used on a data access page to draw the user's attention to a specific page element, such as a headline or an important announcement. To place a marquee on a page, create a scrolling text control.

maximum record limit

To improve performance, you can specify the maximum number of records that will be retrieved from a Microsoft SQL Server database for a form or datasheet in an Access project.

MDE file

An Access 2003 or earlier database (.mdb) file with all modules compiled and all editable source code removed.

Memo data type

In an Access database, this is a field data type. Memo fields can contain up to 65,535 characters.

Microsoft Access data file

An Access database or Access project file. An Access 2007 database stores database objects and data in an .accdb file, and earlier versions of Access use the .mdb format. A project file does not contain data, and is used to connect to a Microsoft SQL Server database.

Microsoft Access database

A collection of data and objects (such as tables, queries, or forms) that is related to a particular topic or purpose.

Microsoft Access object

An object, defined by Access, that relates to Access, its interface, or an application's forms and reports. In addition, you can use a Microsoft Access object to program the elements of the interface used for entering and displaying data.

Microsoft Access project

An Access file that connects to a Microsoft SQL Server database and is used to create client/server applications. A project file doesn't contain any data or data-definition-based objects, such as tables and views.

Microsoft Data Engine

A client/server data engine that provides local data storage on a smaller computer system, such as a single-user computer or small workgroup server, and that is compatible with Microsoft SQL Server 6.5, SQL Server 7.0, and SQL Server 2000.

Microsoft SQL Server database

A database in Microsoft SQL Server, it consists of tables, views, indexes, stored procedures, functions, and triggers. You can connect an Access database to SQL Server data by using ODBC or by creating an Access project (*.adp) file.

module level

Describes any variable or constant declared in the Declarations section of a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) module or outside of a procedure. Variables or constants declared at the module level are available to all procedures in a module.

module-level variable

A variable that is declared in the Declarations section of a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) module by using the Private keyword. These variables are available to all procedures in the module.

money data type

In an Access project, a data type that stores monetary values in the range -922,337,203,685,477.5707 through 922,337,203,685,477.5807, with accuracy to a ten-thousandth of a monetary unit.

move handle

The large square that is displayed in the upper left corner of the selected control or control layout in Design view or Layout view. You can drag the handle to move the control or control layout to another location.

Move mode

The mode in which you can move a column in Datasheet view by using the left and right arrow keys.

multivalued field

A lookup field that can store more than one value.

multiuser (shared) database

A database that permits more than one user to access and modify the same set of data at the same time.



Name AutoCorrect

A feature that automatically corrects common side effects that occur when you rename forms, reports, tables, queries, fields, or controls on forms and reports. However, Name AutoCorrect cannot repair all references to renamed objects.

navigation buttons

The buttons that you use to move through records. These buttons are located in the lower left corner of the Datasheet view and Form view. The buttons are also available in Print Preview so that you can move through the pages of your document.

Navigation Pane

The pane that appears when you open an Access database or an Access project. The Navigation Pane displays the objects in the database, and can be customized to sort and group objects in different ways.

nchar data type

In an Access project, a fixed-length data type with a maximum of 4,000 Unicode characters. Unicode characters use 2 bytes per character and support all international characters.

normalize

To minimize the duplication of information in a relational database through effective table design. You can use the Table Analyzer Wizard to normalize your database.

ntext data type

In an Access project, a variable-length data type that can hold a maximum of 2^30 - 1 (1,073,741,823) characters. Columns with the ntext data type store a 16-byte pointer in the data row, and the data is stored separately.

Null

A value you can enter in a field or use in expressions or queries to indicate missing or unknown data. In Visual Basic, the Null keyword indicates a Null value. Some fields, such as primary key fields, can't contain a Null value.

null field

A field containing a Null value. A null field is not the same as a field that contains a zero-length string (" ") or a field with a value of 0.

Number data type

In an Access database, a field data type designed for numerical data that will be used in mathematical calculations. Use the Currency data type, however, to display or calculate currency values.

numeric data type

In an Access project, an exact numeric data type that holds values from -10^38 - 1 through 10^38 - 1. You can specify the scale (maximum total number of digits) and precision (maximum number of digits to the right of the decimal point).

nvarchar(n) data type

In an Access project, a variable-length data type with a maximum of 4,000 Unicode characters. Unicode characters use 2 bytes per character and support all international characters.



Object data type

A fundamental data type representing any object that can be recognized by Visual Basic. Although you can declare any object variable as type Object, it is best to declare object variables according to their specific types.

Object Dependencies pane

Shows objects that have a dependency on the selected object and also objects on which the selected object has dependencies.

object library

A file that contains definitions of objects and their methods and properties. The file that contains an object library typically has the file name extension .olb.

object type

A type of object exposed by a program through Automation; for example, Application, File, Range, and Sheet. Use the Object Browser in the Visual Basic Editor or refer to the program's documentation for a complete listing of available objects.

object variable

A variable that contains a reference to an object.

ODBC Connection String Builder

An Access tool that you can use to connect to an SQL database when you create a pass-through query. If you save the query, the connection string is stored with the query.

ODBC data source

Data and the information needed to access that data from programs and databases that support the Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) protocol.

ODBC database

A database for which an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) driver — a driver that you can use for importing, linking to, or exporting data — is supplied.

ODBCDirect

A technology that allows you to access ODBC data sources directly by using DAO features that bypass the Microsoft Jet database engine.

OLE container

A program that contains a linked or embedded OLE object from another program. For example, if an OLE object in an Access database contains an Excel worksheet, Access is the OLE container.

OLE DB

A component database architecture that provides efficient network and Internet access to many types of data sources, including relational data, mail files, flat files, and spreadsheets.

OLE DB provider

A program in the OLE DB architecture that enables native access to data, instead of accessing data by using ODBC or IISAM drivers, which are external ways to access the data.

OLE object

An object supporting the OLE protocol for object linking and embedding. An OLE object from an OLE server (for example, a Windows Paint picture or an Excel worksheet) can be linked or embedded in a field, form, or report.

OLE Object data type

A field data type that you use for objects created in other programs that can be linked or embedded (inserted) in an Access database.

OLE server

A program or DLL that supplies a linked or embedded OLE object to another program. For example, if an OLE object in an Access database contains an Excel worksheet, Excel is the OLE server.

OLE/DDE link

A connection between an OLE object and its OLE server, or between a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) source document and a destination document.

one-to-many relationship

An association between two tables in which the primary key value of each record in the primary table corresponds to the value in the matching field or fields of many records in the related table.

one-to-one relationship

An association between two tables in which the primary key value of each record in the primary table corresponds to the value in the matching field or fields of one, and only one, record in the related table.

option button

A control, also called a radio button, that is typically used as part of an option group to present alternatives on a form or report. A user cannot select more than one option.

option group

A frame that can contain check boxes, toggle buttons, and option buttons on a form or report. You use an option group to present alternatives from which the user can select a single option.

outer join

A join in which each matching record from two tables is combined into one record in the query's results, and at least one table contributes all of its records, even if the values in the joined field don't match those in the other table.

owner

When security is being used, the user account that has control over a database or database object. By default, the user account that created a database or database object is the owner.



page (data storage)

A portion of the database file in which record data is stored. Depending on the size of the records, a page (4 KB in size) may contain more than one record.

page footer

Used to display page summaries, dates, or page numbers at the bottom of every page in a form or report. In a form, the page footer appears only when you print the form.

page header

Used to display a title, column headings, dates, or page numbers at the top of every page in a form or report. In a form, the page header appears only when you print the form.

parameter query

A query in which a user interactively specifies one or more criteria values. A parameter query is not a separate kind of query; rather, it extends the flexibility of a query.

partial replica

A database that contains only a subset of the records in a full replica. With a partial replica, you can set filters and identify relationships that define which subset of the records in the full replica should be present in the database.

pass-through query

An SQL-specific query you use to send commands directly to an ODBC database server. By using pass-through queries, you work directly with the tables on the server instead of the data being processed by the Access database engine.

permissions

A set of attributes that specifies what kind of access a user has to data or objects in a database.

persistent object

An object stored in the database; for example, a database table or QueryDef object. Dynaset-type or snapshot-type Recordset objects are not considered persistent objects because they are created in memory as needed.

personal ID

A case-sensitive alphanumeric string that is 4 to 20 characters long and that Access uses in combination with the account name to identify a user or group in an Access workgroup.

pessimistic

A type of locking in which the page containing one or more records, including the record being edited, is unavailable to other users when you use the Edit method, and remains unavailable until you use the Update method.

pi

A mathematical constant equal to approximately 3.1415926535897932.

PivotChart view

A view that shows a graphical analysis of data in a datasheet or form. You can see different levels of detail or specify the layout by dragging fields and items or by showing and hiding items in the drop-down lists for the fields.

PivotTable form

An interactive table that summarizes large amounts of data by using format and calculation methods that you choose. You can rotate its row and column headings to view the data in different ways, similar to an Excel PivotTable report.

PivotTable list

A Microsoft Office Web Component that is used to analyze data interactively on a Web page. Data displayed in a row and column format can be moved, filtered, sorted, and calculated in ways that are meaningful for your audience.

PivotTable view

A view that summarizes and analyzes data in a datasheet or form. You can use different levels of detail or organize data by dragging the fields and items or by showing and hiding items in the drop-down lists for the fields.

plus pointer

The pointer that appears when you move the pointer to the left edge of a field in a datasheet. When the plus pointer appears, you can click to select the entire field.

pop-up form

A form that stays on top of other windows. A pop-up form can be modal or modeless.

primary key

One or more fields (columns) whose values uniquely identify each record in a table. A primary key cannot allow Null values and must always have a unique index. A primary key is used to relate a table to foreign keys in other tables.

primary table

The "one" side of two related tables in a one-to-many relationship. A primary table should have a primary key and each record should be unique.

private procedure

A Sub or Function procedure is declared as private by using the Private keyword in a Declare statement. Private procedures are available for use only by other procedures within the same module.

procedure

A sequence of declarations and statements in a module that are executed as a unit. Procedures in a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) module include both Sub and Function procedures.

procedure level

Describes any variables or constants declared within a procedure. Variables and constants declared within a procedure are available to that procedure only.

procedure-level variable

A variable that is declared within a procedure. Procedure-level variables are always private to the procedure in which they're declared.

project

The set of all code modules in a database, including standard modules and class modules. By default, the project has the same name as the database.

property sheet

A pane that is used to view or modify the properties of various objects such as tables, queries, fields, forms, reports, data access pages, and controls.

pseudo index

A dynamic cross-reference of one or more table data fields (columns) that permits an ODBC table (server table) without a unique index to be edited.

public variable

A variable that you declare with the Public keyword in the Declarations section of a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) module. A public variable can be shared by all the procedures in every module in a database.

publication

In an Access project, a publication can contain one or more published tables or stored procedure articles from one user database. Each user database can have one or more publications. An article is a grouping of data replicated as a unit.

publish

To save a database to a document management server, such as a server running Windows SharePoint Services.



query

A question about the data stored in your tables, or a request to perform an action on the data. A query can bring together data from multiple tables to serve as the source of data for a form or report.

Query window

A window in which you work with queries in Design view, Datasheet view, SQL view, or Print Preview.

QueryDef

a stored definition of a query in an Access database, or a temporary definition of a query in an ODBCDirect workspace.



real data type

In an Access project, an approximate numeric data type with seven-digit precision. It can hold positive values from approximately 1.18E - 38 through 3.40E + 38, negative values from approximately -1.18E - 38 through -3.40E + 38, or zero.

record navigation control

A control used on a data access page to display a record navigation toolbar. In a grouped page, you can add a navigation toolbar to each group level. You can customize the record navigation control by changing its properties.

record number box

A small box that displays the current record number in the lower-left corner in Datasheet view and Form view. To move to a specific record, you can type the record number in the box, and press ENTER.

record selector

A small box or bar to the left of a record that you can click to select the entire record in Datasheet view and Form view.

record source

The underlying source of data for a form, report, or data access page. In an Access database, it can be a table, query, or SQL statement. In an Access project, it can be a table, view, SQL statement, or stored procedure.

recordset

The collective name given to table-, dynaset-, and snapshot-type Recordset objects, which are sets of records that behave as objects.

referenced database

The Access database to which the user has established a reference from the current database. The user can create a reference to a database and then call procedures within standard modules in that database.

referencing database

The current Access database from which the user has created a reference to another Access database. The user can create a reference to a database and then call procedures within standard modules in that database.

referential integrity

Rules that you follow to preserve the defined relationships between tables when you add, update, or delete records.

refresh

In an Access database, to redisplay the records in a form or datasheet to reflect changes that other users have made. In an Access project, to rerun a query underlying the active form or datasheet in order to reflect changes to records.

relationship

An association that is established between common fields (columns) in two tables. A relationship can be one-to-one, one-to-many, or many-to-many.

Relationships object tab

An object tab in which you view, create, and modify relationships between tables and queries.

relative or inline positioning

Places the element in the natural HTML flow of the document but offsets the position of the element based on the preceding content.

repaint

To redraw the screen. The Repaint method completes any pending screen updates for a specified form.

replica

A copy of a database that is a member of a replica set and can be synchronized with other replicas in the set. Changes to the data in a replicated table in one replica are sent and applied to the other replicas.

replica set

The Design Master and all replicas that share the same database design and unique replica set identifier.

replica set topology

The order in which changes are propagated from replica to replica. Topology determines how quickly changes in another replica appear in your replica.

replication

The process of copying a database so that two or more copies can exchange updates of data or replicated objects. This exchange is called synchronization.

report

An Access database object that that you can print containing information that is formatted and organized according to your specifications. Examples of reports are sales summaries, phone lists, and mailing labels.

report footer

A report section that is used to place information that normally appears at the bottom of the page, such as page numbers, dates, and sums.

report header

A report section that is used to place information (such as a title, date, or report introduction) at the beginning of a report.

report module

A module that includes Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) code for all event procedures triggered by events occurring on a specific report or its controls.

Report object tab

An object tab in which you work with reports in Design view, Layout Preview, or Print Preview.

report selector

The box where the rulers meet in the upper-left corner of a report in Design view. Use the box to perform report-level operations, such as selecting the report.

report snapshot

A file (.snp file name extension) that contains a high-fidelity copy of each page of an Access report. It preserves the two-dimensional layout, graphics, and other embedded objects of the report.

requery

To rerun a query underlying the active form or datasheet in order to reflect changes to the records, display newly added records, and eliminate deleted records.

reserved word

A word that is part of a language, such as Visual Basic. Reserved words include the names of statements, predefined functions and data types, methods, operators, and objects.

right outer join

An outer join in which all the records from the right side of the RIGHT JOIN operation in the query's SQL statement are added to the query's results, even if there are no matching values in the joined field from the table on the left.

rollback

The process of ending or cancelling a pending transaction without saving the changes.

row area

The part of PivotTable view that contains row fields.

row field

A field in the row area of PivotTable view. Items in row fields are listed down the left side of the view. Inner row fields are closest to the detail area; outer row fields are to the left of the inner row fields.

row selector

A small box or bar that, when clicked, selects an entire row in table or macro Design view or when you sort and group records in report Design view.



section

A part of a form or report, such as a header, footer, or detail section.

section header

The horizontal bar above a form or report section in Design view. The section bar displays the type and name of the section. Use it to access the section's property sheet.

section selector

The box on the left side of a section bar when an object is open in Design view. Use the box to perform section-level operations, such as selecting the section.

secure workgroup

An Access workgroup in which users log on with a user name and password and in which access to database objects is restricted according to permissions granted to specific user accounts and groups.

seed

An initial value used to generate pseudorandom numbers. For example, the Randomize statement creates a seed number used by the Rnd function to create unique pseudorandom number sequences.

select query

A query that asks a question about the data stored in your tables and returns a result set in the form of a datasheet, without changing the data.

selection rectangle

The rectangle formed by the currently selected rows (records) and columns (fields) within Datasheet view.

self-join

A join in which a table is joined to itself. Records from the table are combined with other records from the same table when there are matching values in the joined fields.

separator

A character that separates units of text or numbers.

series field

A field that is displayed in the series area of a chart and that contains series items. A series is a group of related data points.

series point

An individual data value that is plotted in a chart and represented by a column, bar, line, pie or doughnut slice, or other type of data marker.

Server Filter By Form

A technique that uses a version of the current form or datasheet with empty fields in which you can type values you want the filtered records to contain. The data is filtered by the server before it is retrieved from the database.

server-generated HTML

An Active Server Pages (ASP) or IDC/HTX file that is output from a table, query, or form, connected to an ODBC data source, and processed by the Internet Information Server to dynamically create read-only HTML files.

server-generated HTML: An Active Server Pages

session

A sequence of operations performed by the Access database engine that begins when a user logs on and ends when the user logs off. All operations during a session form one transaction scope and are subject to the user's logon permissions.

smalldatetime data type

In an Access project, a date and time data type that is less precise than the datetime data type. Data values range from January 1, 1900, through June 6, 2079, to an accuracy of one minute.

smallint data type

In an Access project, a data type of 2 bytes (16 bits) that stores whole numbers in the range of -2^15 (-32,768) through 2^15 - 1 (32,767).

smallmoney data type

In an Access project, a data type that stores monetary values from -214,748.3648 to 214,748.3647, with accuracy to a ten-thousandth of a monetary unit. When smallmoney values are displayed, they are rounded up to two decimal places.

snapshot

A static image of a set of data, such as the records displayed as the result of a query. Snapshot-type Recordset objects can be created from a base table, a query, or another recordset.

Snapshot Viewer

A program that you can use to view, print, or mail a snapshot, such as a report snapshot. Snapshot Viewer consists of a stand-alone executable program, a Snapshot Viewer control (Snapview.ocx), and other related files.

Snapshot Viewer control

An ActiveX control (Snapview.ocx) that you use to view a snapshot report from Microsoft Internet Explorer 3.0 or later, or from any program that supports ActiveX controls, such as Access or Microsoft Visual Basic.

SQL database

A database that is based on Structured Query Language (SQL).

SQL string/statement

An expression that defines an SQL command, such as SELECT, UPDATE, or DELETE, and includes clauses such as WHERE and ORDER BY. SQL strings/statements are typically used in queries and in aggregate functions.

sql variant data type

In an Access project, a data type that stores values of several data types, except for text, ntext, image, timestamp, and sql_variant data types. The sql variant data type is used in a column, parameter, variable, or return value of a user-defined function.

SQL view

An object tab that displays the SQL statement for the current query or that is used to create an SQL-specific query (union, pass-through, or data definition). When you create a query in Design view, Access constructs the SQL equivalent in SQL view.

SQL-specific query

A query that consists of an SQL statement. Subqueries and pass-through, union, and data-definition queries are SQL-specific queries.

standard deviation

A parameter that indicates the way in which a probability function is centered around its mean and that is equal to the square root of the moment in which the deviation from the mean is squared.

standard module

A Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) module in which you can place Sub and Function procedures that you want to be available to other procedures throughout your database.

stored procedure

A precompiled collection of SQL statements and optional control-of-flow statements that is stored under a name and processed as a unit. The collection is stored in an SQL database and can be run with one call from a program.

string delimiter

Text characters that set apart a string embedded within a string. Single quotation marks (') and double quotation marks (") are string delimiters.

Sub procedure

A Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) procedure that carries out an operation. Unlike a Function procedure, a Sub procedure doesn't return a value. You begin a Sub procedure with a Sub statement and end it with an End Sub statement.

subdatasheet

A datasheet that is nested within another datasheet and that contains data related or joined to the first datasheet.

subform

A form contained within another form or a report.

subform/subreport control

A control that displays a subform in a form or a subform or a subreport in a report.

subquery

An SQL SELECT statement that is inside another select or action query.

subreport

A report that is contained within another report.

subscribe

To agree to receive a publication in an Access database or an Access project. A subscriber database subscribes to replicated data from a publisher database.

subscription

The database that receives tables and data replicated from a publisher database in an Access project.

synchronization

The process of updating two members of a replica set by exchanging all updated records and objects in each member. Two replica set members are synchronized when the changes in each have been applied to the other.

sysname data type

In an Access project, a special system-supplied, user-defined data type that is used for table columns, variables, and stored procedure parameters that store object names.

system object

Database objects that are defined by the system, such as the table MSysIndexes, or by the user. You can create a system object by naming the object with USys as the first four characters in the object name.



tab control

A control that you can use to construct a single form or dialog box that contains several pages, each with a tab, and each containing similar controls, such as text boxes or option buttons. When a user clicks a tab, that page becomes active.

table

A database object that stores data in records (rows) and fields (columns). The data is usually about a particular category of things, such as employees or orders.

table data type

In an Access project, a special data type that is used to store a result set in a local variable or return value of a user-defined function for later processing. It can be used in place of a temporary table stored in the tempdb database.

Table object tab

In an Access database, an object tab in which you work with tables in Design view or Datasheet view.

table properties

In an Access database, attributes of a table that affect the appearance or behavior of the table as a whole. Table properties are set in table Design view, as are field properties.

text box

A control, also called an edit field, that is used on a form or report to display text or accept data entry. A text box can have a label attached to it.

text data type

In an Access project, a variable-length data type that can hold a maximum of 2^31 - 1 (2,147,483,647) characters; default length is 16.

Text data type

In an Access database, this is a field data type. Text fields can contain up to 255 characters or the number of characters specified by the FieldSize property, whichever is less.

timestamp data type

In an Access project, a data type that is automatically updated every time a row is inserted or updated. Values in timestamp columns are not datetime data, but binary(8) or varbinary(8), indicating the sequence of data modifications.

tinyint data type

In an Access project, a data type of 1 byte (8 bits) that stores whole numbers in the range of 0 through 255.

toggle button

A control that is used to provide on/off options on a form or report. It can display either text or a picture, and can be stand-alone or part of an option group.

toolbox

A set of tools that is available in Design view for adding controls to a form or report.

ToolTips

Brief descriptions of the names of commands and buttons on the Ribbon. A ToolTip is displayed when the mouse pointer rests on these commands and buttons.

topology

The order in which changes are propagated from replica to replica. Topology is important because it determines how quickly changes in another replica appear in your replica.

total field

A field that summarizes data from the underlying record source. A total field can use a summary function, such as Sum or Count, or use an expression to calculate summary values.

Total row

A row on a datasheet that displays your choice of summary information for each field, based on the type of data in the field.

totals query

A query that displays a summary calculation, such as an average or sum, for values in various fields from a table or tables. A totals query is not a separate kind of query; rather, it extends the flexibility of select queries.

transaction

A series of changes made to a database's data or schema. If any elements of the transaction fail, the entire transaction fails, and data is "rolled back."

trigger

A special form of a stored procedure that is carried out automatically when data in a specified table is modified. Triggers are often created to enforce referential integrity or consistency among logically related data in different tables.



unbound control

A control that is not connected to a field in an underlying table, query, or SQL statement. An unbound control is often used to display informational text or decorative pictures.

unbound form or report

A form or report that is not connected to a record source such as a table, query, or SQL statement. (The form's or report's RecordSource property is blank.)

unbound object frame

A control that you place on a form or report to contain an unbound object. An unbound object is an object, such as a picture, whose value is not derived from data stored in a table.

union query

A query that uses the UNION operator to combine the results of two or more select queries.

unique index

An index defined by setting a field's Indexed property to Yes (No Duplicates). A unique index will not allow duplicate entries in the indexed field. Setting a field as the primary key automatically defines the field as unique.

uniqueidentifier data type

In an Access project, a 16-byte globally unique identifier (GUID).

update

To accept changes to data in a record. The changes are saved in the database when you move to another record on a form or datasheet, or when you explicitly save the record.

update query

An action query (SQL statement) that changes a set of records according to criteria (search conditions) that you specify.

updateable snapshot

A type of recordset that works efficiently in a client/server environment by caching data on the client and minimizing round trips to the server to access and update data.

user account

An account identified by a user name and personal ID (PID) that is created to manage the user's permissions to access database objects in an Access workgroup.

user defined data type

In a Microsoft SQL Server database, a definition of the type of data a column can contain. It is defined by the user, and based on existing SQL Server data types. Rules and defaults can only be bound to user-defined data types.

user defined type

In Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), any data type defined by using the Type statement. User-defined data types can contain one or more elements of any data type. Arrays of user-defined and other data types are created using the Dim statement.

user-defined collection

A collection that you create by adding objects to a Collection object. Items in a collection defined by the Collection object are indexed, beginning with 1.

user-defined function

A query that takes input parameters and returns a result, similar to a stored procedure. Types: scalar (multistatement; returns one value), inline (one statement; an updateable table value), and table (multistatement; table value).

user-defined object

A custom object that is defined in a form or report class module. In a class module, you can create properties and methods for a new object, create a new instance of the object, and manipulate the object by using those properties and methods.

user-level security

When using user-level security in an Access database, a database administrator or an object's owner can grant individual users or groups of users specific permissions to tables, queries, forms, reports, and macros.

Users group

The group account that contains all user accounts. Access automatically adds user accounts to the Users group when you create them.



validation

The process of checking whether entered data meets certain conditions or limitations.

validation rule

A property that defines valid input values for a field or record in a table, or for a control on a form. Access displays the message specified in the ValidationText property when the rule is violated.

varbinary data type

In an Access project, a variable-length data type with a maximum of 8,000 bytes of binary data.

varchar

In an Access project, a variable-length data type with a maximum of 8,000 ANSI characters.

variance

The square of the standard deviation. It is a measure of the amount by which all values in a group vary from the average value of the group.

variant expression

Any expression that can evaluate to numeric, string, or date data, in addition to the special values Empty and Null.

view

In an Access project, a type of query that is a virtual table based on an SQL SELECT statement. For example, a view may contain only 3 out of 10 available columns in a join of two tables, in order to limit access to certain data.

visibility

A property of a replica that indicates which members of the replica set it can synchronize with and which conflict resolution rules apply. Replicas fall into three visibility types: global, local, and anonymous.



WHERE clause

The part of an SQL statement that specifies which records to retrieve.

wildcard characters

Characters used in queries and expressions to include all records, file names, or other items that begin with specific characters or that match a certain pattern.



XML attribute

Information that is added to a tag to provide more information about the tag, such as <ingredient quantity="2"units="cups">flour</ingredient>. In this example, quantity and units are attributes.

XML element

Information that is delimited by a start and end tag in an Extended Markup Language (XML) document. An example of an XML element is <LastName>Davolio</LastName>.

XML entities

Combinations of characters and symbols that replace other characters when an XML document is parsed, usually those that have other meanings in XML. For example, &lt; represents the < symbol, which is also the opening bracket for a tag.



Yes/No data type

A field data type that you use for fields that will contain only one of two values, such as Yes or No and True or False. Null values are not allowed.



zero-length string

A string that contains no characters. You can use a zero-length string to indicate that you know no value exists for a field. You enter a zero-length string by typing two double quotation marks with no space between them (" ").

 
 
Applies to:
Access 2007