Switch between relative and absolute references

When you create a formula that refers to another cell or range, that cell reference (cell reference: The set of coordinates that a cell occupies on a sheet. For example, the reference of the cell that appears at the intersection of column B and row 3 is B3.) can be relative or absolute. A relative cell reference adjusts to its new location when the formula is copied or moved. An absolute cell reference does not change when the formula is moved.

  1. Select the cell that contains the cell reference that you want to change.
  2. In the formula bar (formula bar: A toolbar that you use to enter or edit values or formulas in cells or charts. The formula bar displays the constant value or formula used in the active cell.), click the cell reference that you want to change.
  3. Press COMMAND + T to move through the combinations.

In the following table, the Changes to column reflects how a reference type updates if a formula that contains the reference is copied two cells down and two cells to the right.

Formula being copied

See also

Calculation operators and order of operations

Applies to:
Excel for Mac 2011