DMin, DMax Functions

You can use the DMin and DMax functions to determine the minimum and maximum values in a specified set of records (a domain (domain: A set of records that is defined by a table, a query, or an SQL expression. Domain aggregate functions return statistical information about a specific domain or set of records.)). Use the DMin and DMax functions in a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) module, a macro (macro: An action or a set of actions that you can use to automate tasks. Macros are recorded in the Visual Basic for Applications programming language.), a query expression, or a calculated control (calculated control: A control that is used on a form, report, or data access page to display the result of an expression. The result is recalculated each time there is a change in any of the values on which the expression is based.).

For example, you could use the DMin and DMax functions in calculated controls on a report to display the smallest and largest order amounts for a particular customer. Or you could use the DMin function in a query expression to display all orders with a discount greater than the minimum possible discount.

Syntax

DMin(expr, domain [, criteria] )

DMax(expr, domain [, criteria] )

The DMin and DMax functions have these arguments:

Argument Description
expr Required. An expression that identifies the field for which you want to find the minimum or maximum value. It can be a string expression (string expression: An expression that evaluates to a sequence of contiguous characters. Elements of the expression can be: functions that return a string or a string Variant (VarType 8); a string literal, constant, variable, or Variant.) identifying a field in a table or query, or it can be an expression that performs a calculation on data in that field. In expr, you can include the name of a field in a table, a control on a form, a constant, or a function. If expr includes a function, it can be either built-in or user-defined, but not another domain aggregate or SQL aggregate function.
domain Required. A string expression identifying the set of records that constitutes the domain. It can be a table name or a query name for a query that does not require a parameter.
criteria Optional. A string expression used to restrict the range of data on which the DMin or DMax function is performed. For example, criteria is often equivalent to the WHERE clause in an SQL expression, without the word WHERE. If criteria is omitted, the DMin and DMax functions evaluate expr against the entire domain. Any field that is included in criteria must also be a field in domain, otherwise the DMin and DMax functions returns a Null (Null: A value you can enter in a field or use in expressions or queries to indicate missing or unknown data. In Visual Basic, the Null keyword indicates a Null value. Some fields, such as primary key fields, can't contain a Null value.).

Remarks

The DMin and DMax functions return the minimum and maximum values that satisfy criteria. If expr identifies numeric data, the DMin and DMax functions return numeric values. If expr identifies string data, they return the string that is first or last alphabetically.

The DMin and DMax functions ignore Null values in the field referenced by expr. However, if no record satisfies criteria or if domain contains no records, the DMin and DMax functions return a Null.

Whether you use the DMin or DMax function in a macro, module, query expression, or calculated control, you must construct the criteria argument carefully to ensure that it will be evaluated correctly.

You can use the DMin and DMax function to specify criteria in the Criteria row of a query, in a calculated field expression in a query, or in the Update To row of an update query (update query: An action query (SQL statement) that changes a set of records according to criteria (search conditions) that you specify.).

 Note   You can use the DMin and DMax functions or the Min and Max functions in a calculated field expression of a totals query (totals query: A query that displays a summary calculation, such as an average or sum, for values in various fields from a table or tables. A totals query is not a separate kind of query; rather, it extends the flexibility of select queries.). If you use the DMin or DMax function, values are evaluated before the data is grouped. If you use the Min or Max function, the data is grouped before values in the field expression are evaluated.

Use the DMin or DMax function in a calculated control when you need to specify criteria to restrict the range of data on which the function is performed. For example, to display the maximum freight charged for an order shipped to California, set the ControlSource property of a text box to the following expression:

=DMax("[Freight]", "Orders", "[ShipRegion] = 'CA'")
      

If you simply want to find the minimum or maximum value of all records in domain, use the Min or Max function.

You can use the DMin or DMax function in a module or macro or in a calculated control on a form if the field that you need to display is not in the record source on which your form is based.

ShowTip

Although you can use the DMin or DMax function to find the minimum or maximum value from a field in a foreign table (foreign table: A table (such as Customer Orders) that contains a foreign key field (such as CustomerID) that's the primary key field in another table (such as Customers) in the database and that is usually on the "many" side of a one-to-many relationship.), it may be more efficient to create a query that contains the fields that you need from both tables and base your form or report on that query.

 Note   Unsaved changes to records in domain aren't included when you use these functions. If you want the DMax or DMin function to be based on the changed values, you must first save the changes by clicking Save Record under Records on the Data tab, moving the focus to another record, or by using the Update method.

Example

 Note   Examples that follow demonstrate the use of this function in a Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) module. For more information about working with VBA, select Developer Reference in the drop-down list next to Search and enter one or more terms in the search box.

The following example returns the lowest and highest values from the Freight field for orders shipped to the United Kingdom. The domain is an Orders table. The criteria argument restricts the resulting set of records to those for which ShipCountryRegion equals UK.

Dim curX As Currency
Dim curY As Currency

curX = "[Freight]", "Orders", _
    "[ShipCountryRegion] = 'UK'"
curY = "[Freight]", "Orders", _
    "[ShipCountryRegion] = 'UK'"
      

In the next example, the criteria argument includes the current value of a text box called OrderDate. The text box is bound to an OrderDate field in an Orders table. Note that the reference to the control isn't included in the double quotation marks (") that denote the strings. This ensures that each time the DMax function is called, Microsoft Office Access 2007 obtains the current value from the control.

Dim curX As Currency
curX = "[Freight]", "Orders", "[OrderDate] = #" _
    & Forms!Orders!OrderDate & "#"
      
In the next example, the criteria expression includes a variable, dteOrderDate. Note that number signs (#) are included in the string expression, so that when the strings are concatenated, they will enclose the date.
Dim dteOrderDate As Date
Dim curX As Currency

dteOrderDate = #03/30/2000#
curX = "[Freight]", "Orders", _
    "[OrderDate] = #" & dteOrderDate & "#"
      
 
 
Applies to:
Access 2007